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Translation and Testing of the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy Scale for Use With Taiwanese Older Adults


Jung-Hua Shao, No. 11, Buzih Lane, Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan, R.O.C. E-mail:


ABSTRACT Objectives: The purposes of this investigation were to translate the Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy (CDSE) scale from English to Mandarin Chinese and to test the validity, reliability, and feasibility of the translated scale in a sample of Taiwanese older adults.

Design and Sample: This study used a methodological design to translate the CDSE based on the Brislin's model: (1) translation from source language (SL) of English to the target language (TL) of Chinese, (2) evaluation of Chinese version, (3) blind back translation from Chinese to English, (4) comparison of original and back-translated English versions, and (5) evaluation of the translated scale by a committee of bilingual Taiwanese experts. The translated CDSE scale was tested with 156 community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults, and any problems occurring during the administration of the scale were documented.

Results and Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the Chinese version of CDSE scale were acceptable. However, the validity of items may have been impacted by differences in culture, language, and educational levels between English-speaking and Chinese-speaking populations. These findings suggest the need for further methodological study to evaluate and refine translation tools to resolve differences in culture, language, and educational levels between SL and TL.