Exercise Adoption Among Older, Low-Income Women at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

Authors

  • Laura M. Hays,

    1. Ph.D., R.N., Postdoctoral Fellow, Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana
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  • Susan J. Pressler,

    1. D.N.S., R.N., is a Professor of Nursing, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan
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  • Teresa M. Damush,

    1. Ph.D., is a Research Scientist, Regenstrief Institute Inc. and Indiana University Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research, Indianapolis, Indiana, and Assistant Research Professor in Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
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  • Susan M. Rawl,

    1. Ph.D., R.N., is Associate Professor, Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana
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  • Daniel O. Clark

    1. Ph.D., is Research Scientist, Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; Associate Professor of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; and Center Scientist, Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN.
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Laura M. Hays, 7090 North Pennsylvania Street, Indianapolis, IN 46220. E-mail: lauramhays@comcast.net

Abstract

ABSTRACT Using an expanded Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) model, we hypothesized that self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and exercise self-definition would predict exercise adoption. This secondary analysis examined data from a prospective single-group study of low-income women who received a physician screen and referral to a community-based, free exercise program. The sample included 190 older, low-income women with a mean age of 64 years, the majority of whom were African American (66%) and had at least one cardiovascular risk factor (92%). Baseline values of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and exercise self-definition were measured using instruments developed for the study. Exercise adoption was defined as the number of exercise sessions completed over 8 weeks. Our hypothesis was tested using hierarchical multiple regression. The mean number of exercise sessions completed over the 8-week period was 5.7 out of a recommended 24. Value of Exercise scores, a subscale of the Exercise Self-Definition scale, predicted exercise adoption. Self-efficacy and outcome expectations were not predictive. The significance of Value of Exercise scores reinforces the importance of expanding SCT with additional variables such as exercise self-definition. Future work should emphasize the social and environmental factors that form an important part of SCT.

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