Association of Piebaldism, Multiple Café-au-lait Macules, and Intertriginous Freckling: Clinical Evidence of a Common Pathway between KIT and Sprouty-Related, Ena/Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Homology-1 Domain Containing Protein 1 (SPRED1)


Address correspondence to Yvonne E. Chiu, M.D., Department of Dermatology, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, or e-mail:


Abstract:  Piebaldism is a rare genodermatosis caused by KIT mutations. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who had the white forelock and leukoderma of piebaldism, but the presence of many café-au-lait macules and axillary and inguinal freckling complicated the diagnosis. Patients with similar cutaneous findings have been previously reported, and their disorder has been attributed to an overlap of piebaldism and neurofibromatosis type 1. Legius syndrome is a recently described syndrome caused by Sprouty-related, Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein homology-1 domain containing protein 1 (SPRED1) mutations that also has multiple café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling. Based on our current understanding of KIT and SPRED1 protein interactions, we propose that café-au-lait macules and freckling may be seen in some patients with piebaldism and does not necessarily represent coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1.