Received from the Departments of Medicine (JMC, RBL, DEK) and Epidemiology (JMC), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md; Department of Medicine (TKH), University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala; Innovative Medical Research (KK), Baltimore, Md; and Department of Medicine (WTB), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga.
Teaching the Teachers
National Survey of Faculty Development in Departments of Medicine of U.S. Teaching Hospitals
Article first published online: 8 MAR 2004
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Volume 19, Issue 3, pages 205–214, March 2004
How to Cite
Clark, J. M., Houston, T. K., Kolodner, K., Branch, W. T., Levine, R. B. and Kern, D. E. (2004), Teaching the Teachers. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19: 205–214. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30334.x
- Issue published online: 8 MAR 2004
- Article first published online: 8 MAR 2004
- faculty development;
- teaching skills;
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, topics, methods, and intensity of ongoing faculty development (FD) in teaching skills.
DESIGN: Mailed survey.
PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and seventy-seven of the 386 (72%) U.S. teaching hospitals with internal medicine residency programs.
MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence and characteristics of ongoing FD.
RESULTS: One hundred and eight teaching hospitals (39%) reported ongoing FD. Hospitals with a primary medical school affiliation (university hospitals) were more likely to have ongoing FD than nonuniversity hospitals. For nonuniversity hospitals, funding from the Health Resources Services Administration and >50 house staff were associated with ongoing FD. For university hospitals, >100 department of medicine faculty was associated. Ongoing programs included a mean of 10.4 topics (standard deviation, 5.4). Most offered half-day workshops (80%), but 22% offered ≥1-month programs. Evaluations were predominantly limited to postcourse evaluations forms. Only 14% of the hospitals with ongoing FD (5% of all hospitals) had “advanced” programs, defined as offering ≥10 topics, lasting >2 days, and using ≥3 experiential teaching methods. These were significantly more likely to be university hospitals and to offer salary support and/or protected time to their FD instructors. Generalists and hospital-based faculty were more likely to receive training than subspecialist and community-based faulty. Factors facilitating participation in FD activities were supervisor attitudes, FD expertise, and institutional culture.
CONCLUSIONS: A minority of U.S. teaching hospitals offer ongoing faculty development in teaching skills. Continued progress will likely require increased institutional commitment, improved evaluations, and adequate resources, particularly FD instructors and funding.