• 1
    Lauer, G.M. and B.D. Walker, Hepatitis C virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 2001. 345(1): p. 4152.
  • 2
    National Hepatitis C Prevention Strategy: A Comprehensive Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and its Consequences. 2001, Centers for Disease Control: Atlanta, GA.
  • 3
    Hepatitis C: 170 million infected worldwide and still no vaccine. 1998, World Health Organization: Geneva.
  • 4
    Sulkowski, M.S., et al., Hepatitis C virus infection as an opportunistic disease in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis, 2000. 30 Suppl 1: p. S7784.
  • 5
    Tedaldi, E., Prevalence and characteristics of HCV co-infection in a community based HIV clinical trials group. in 1st IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment. 2001. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • 6
    Sherman, K.E., et al., Hepatitis C Virus prevalence among patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a cross-sectional analysis of the US adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Clin Infect Dis, 2002. 34(6): p. 8317.
  • 7
    Nyamathi, A.M., et al., Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among homeless adults. J Gen Intern Med, 2002. 17(2): p. 13443.
  • 8
    Page-Shafer, K.A., et al., Hepatitis C virus infection in young, low-income women: the role of sexually transmitted infection as a potential cofactor for HCV infection. Am J Public Health, 2002. 92(4): p. 6706.
  • 9
    Cheung, R.C., et al., Viral Hepatitis and Other Infectious Diseases in a Homeless Population. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2002. 34(4): p. 476480.
  • 10
    Lorvick, J., et al., Prevalence and duration of hepatitis C among injection drug users in San Francisco, Calif. Am J Public Health, 2001. 91(1): p. 467.
  • 11
    Rosenblum, A., et al., Hepatitis C and substance use in a sample of homeless people in New York City. J Addict Dis, 2001. 20(4): p. 1525.
  • 12
    Fleming, C.A., et al., Differences among patients infected with HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) versus those infected with HCV alone in an urban hospital clinic. in 39th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2001. San Francisco, CA.
  • 13
    Leigh, J.P., et al., Costs of hepatitis C. Arch Intern Med, 2001. 161(18): p. 22317.
  • 14
    Kuehne, F.C., et al., Treatment for hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness. Arch Intern Med, 2002. 162: p. 25452556.
  • 15
    Salomon, J.A., et al., Cost-effectiveness of treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection in an evolving patient population. Jama, 2003. 290(2): p. 22837.
  • 16
    Serfaty, L., et al., Impact of early-untreated HIV infection on chronic hepatitis C in intravenous drug users: a case-control study. Aids, 2001. 15(15): p. 20116.
  • 17
    Rodriquez, M. and J. Rodriguez, Comparison of the severity of liver disease in HCV-non-HIV-infected patients and HCV-HIV co-infected patients prior to HCV-treatment in an urban area. in Digestive Disease Week. 2001, Atlanta, GA.
  • 18
    Greub, G., et al., Clinical progression, survival, and immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet, 2000. 356(9244): p. 18005.
  • 19
    Louie, J.K., et al., Trends in Causes of Death in Persons with AIDS in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, San Francisco: 1994–1998. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2002 (in press).
  • 20
    Monga, H.K., et al., Hepatitis C virus infection-related morbidity and mortality among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis, 2001. 33(2): p. 2407.
  • 21
    Bica, I., et al., Increasing mortality due to end-stage liver disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis, 2001. 32(3): p. 4927.
  • 22
    Aceti, A., et al., Hepatotoxicity development during antiretroviral therapy containing protease inhibitors in patients with HIV: the role of hepatitis B and C virus infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2002. 29(1): p. 418.
  • 23
    Sulkowski, M.S., et al., Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy: role of hepatitis C and B infections. Hepatology, 2002. 35(1): p. 1829.
  • 24
    Manns, M.P., et al., Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet, 2001. 358(9286): p. 95865.
  • 25
    Chung, R., A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a with Ribavirin vs Interferon alfa-2a with Ribavirin for the Treatment of Chronic HCV in HIV Co-Infection: ACTG A5071. in 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2002. Seattle, WA.
  • 26
    Kushel, M.B., E. Vittinghoff, and J.S. Haas, Factors associated with the health care utilization of homeless persons. Jama, 2001. 285(2): p. 2006.
  • 27
    Hibbs, J.R., et al., Mortality in a cohort of homeless adults in Philadelphia. N Engl J Med, 1994. 331(5): p. 3049.
  • 28
    Freudenberg, N., Health promotion in the city: a review of current practice and future prospects in the United States. Annu Rev Public Health, 2000. 21: p. 473503.
  • 29
    Moore, R.D., et al., Racial differences in the use of drug therapy for HIV disease in an urban community. N Engl J Med, 1994. 330(11): p. 7638.
  • 30
    Johnson, P.A., et al., Effect of race on the presentation and management of patients with acute chest pain. Ann Intern Med, 1993. 118(8): p. 593601.
  • 31
    Maynard, C., et al., Blacks in the coronary artery surgery study (CASS): race and clinical decision making. Am J Public Health, 1986. 76(12): p. 14468.
  • 32
    Todd, K.H., N. Samaroo, and J.R. Hoffman, Ethnicity as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. Jama, 1993. 269(12): p. 15379.
  • 33
    Moore, R.D., et al., Prevalence, detection, and treatment of alcoholism in hospitalized patients. Jama, 1989. 261(3): p. 4037.
  • 34
    Powe, N.R., et al., Access to recombinant erythropoietin by Medicare-entitled dialysis patients in the first year after FDA approval. Jama, 1992. 268(11): p. 143440.
  • 35
    Diehr, P., et al., Treatment modality and quality differences for black and white breast- cancer patients treated in community hospitals. Med Care, 1989. 27(10): p. 94258.
  • 36
    Robertson, M., et al., HIV seroprevalence and risk factors in a representative sample of homeless and marginally housed adults in San Francisco. AJPH, 2003. in press.
  • 37
    Koegel, P., M.A. Burnam, and R.K. Farr, The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among homeless individuals in the inner city of Los Angeles. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1988. 45(12): p. 108592.
  • 38
    Zolopa, A.R., et al., HIV and tuberculosis infection in San Francisco's homeless adults. Prevalence and risk factors in a representative sample. Jama, 1994. 272(6): p. 45561.
  • 39
    Beck, A.T., R.A. Steer and G.K. Brown, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Manual. 1996, The Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.
  • 40
    Bangsberg, D.R., et al., Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population. Aids, 2000. 14(4): p. 35766.
  • 41
    Hahn, J.A., et al., Hepatitis C virus infection and needle exchange use among young injection drug users in San Francisco. Hepatology, 2001. 34(1): p. 1807.
  • 42
    Thorpe, L.E., et al., Risk of hepatitis C virus infection among young adult injection drug users who share injection equipment. Am J Epidemiol, 2002. 155(7): p. 64553.
  • 43
    Garfein, R.S., et al., Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among young adult injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol, 1998. 18(Suppl 1): p. S119.
  • 44
    Villano, S.A., et al., Incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. J Clin Microbiol, 1997. 35(12): p. 32747.
  • 45
    Fleming, C.A., et al., Experience of an urban hospital referral clinic for evaluation of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). in 39th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2001, San Francisco, CA.
  • 46
    Cawthorne, C.H., et al., Limited success of HCV antiviral therapy in United States veterans. Am J Gastroenterol, 2002. 97(1): p. 14955.
    Direct Link:
  • 47
    Wong, J.B., et al., Pretreatment evaluation of chronic hepatitis C: risks, benefits, and costs. Jama, 1998. 280(24): p. 208893.
  • 48
    Alter, M.J., The epidemiology of hepatitis C. in NIH Consensus Development Conference: Management of Hepatitis C. 1997. Bethesda, MD.
  • 49
    Hyams, K.C., et al., Viral hepatitis in the U.S. military: a study of hospitalization records from 1974 to 1999. Mil Med, 2001. 166(10): p. 8625.
  • 50
    Strathdee, S.A., et al., Barriers to use of free antiretroviral therapy in injection drug users [see comments]. Jama, 1998. 280(6): p. 5479.
  • 51
    Celentano, D.D., et al., Self-reported antiretroviral therapy in injection drug users. Jama, 1998. 280(6): p. 5446.
  • 52
    Hare, C.B., et al., Viral Hepatitis, Liver Damage, and Antiretroviral Prescribing Patterns in an HIV Community Network. in 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2002. Seattle, WA.
  • 53
    Pratt, C.C., et al., Hepatitis C screening and management practices: a survey of drug treatment and syringe exchange programs in New York City. Am J Public Health, 2002. 92(8): p. 12546.
  • 54
    Fraser, M. and J. Buffington, Survey of local health department capacity for hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs. in 128th Annual Meeting of the APHA. 2000. Boston, MA.
  • 55
    Aragon, T., Hepatitis C Infection: Epidemiology. 2000, San Francisco Department of Public Health: San Francisco, CA.
  • 56
    Teshale, E.H., et al., Adherence to Guidelines among HIV/HCV Co-Infected Persons and Providers. in 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2002. Seattle, WA.
  • 57
    Fultz, S.L., et al., Testing, referral, and treatment patterns for hepatitis C virus coinfection in a cohort of veterans with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis, 2003. 36(8): p. 103946.
  • 58
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Panel Statement: management of hepatitis C, 2002. 2002.
  • 59
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Panel Statement: management of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 1997. 26(3 Suppl 1): p. 2S10S.
  • 60
    Alexander, G.C. and A.R. Sehgal, Barriers to cadaveric renal transplantation among blacks, women, and the poor. JAMA, 1998. 280(13): p. 114852.
  • 61
    Schulman, K.A., et al., The effect of race and sex on physicians’ recommendations for cardiac catheterization. New England Journal of Medicine, 1999. 340(8): p. 61826.
  • 62
    Edlin, B.R., et al., Is it justifiable to withhold treatment for hepatitis C from illicit-drug users? N Engl J Med, 2001. 345(3): p. 2115.
  • 63
    Backmund, M., et al., Treatment of hepatitis C infection in injection drug users. Hepatology, 2001. 34(1): p. 18893.
  • 64
    Sylvestre, D., Sustained virologic response in methadone patients treated for HCV. in 52nd Annual Meeting and Postgraduate Course of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). 2001. Dallas, TX.
  • 65
    Gross, R., et al., Effect of adherence to newly initiated antiretroviral therapy on plasma viral load. Aids, 2001. 15(16): p. 210917.
  • 66
    Liu, H., et al., A comparison study of multiple measures of adherence to HIV protease inhibitors. Ann Intern Med, 2001. 134(10): p. 96877.
  • 67
    Arnsten, J.H., et al., Antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression in HIV-infected drug users: comparison of self-report and electronic monitoring. Clin Infect Dis, 2001. 33(8): p. 141723.
  • 68
    Paterson, D.L., et al., Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med, 2000. 133(1): p. 2130.
  • 69
    McNabb, J., et al., Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy predicts virologic outcome at an inner-city human immunodeficiency virus clinic. Clin Infect Dis, 2001. 33(5): p. 7005.
  • 70
    Bangsberg, D.R., et al., Provider assessment of adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2001. 26(5): p. 43542.
  • 71
    Bangsberg, D.R. and A. Moss, When should we delay highly active antiretroviral therapy? J Gen Intern Med, 1999. 14(7): p. 4468.
  • 72
    Forton, D.M., et al., Hepatitis C and cognitive impairment in a cohort of patients with mild liver disease. Hepatology, 2002. 35(2): p. 4339.
  • 73
    Renault, P.F., et al., Psychiatric complications of long-term interferon alfa therapy. Arch Intern Med, 1987. 147(9): p. 157780.
  • 74
    Ademmer, K., et al., Suicidal ideation with IFN-alpha and ribavirin in a patient with hepatitis C. Psychosomatics, 2001. 42(4): p. 3657.
  • 75
    Bonkovsky, H.L. and J.M. Woolley, Reduction of health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C and improvement with interferon therapy. The Consensus Interferon Study Group. Hepatology, 1999. 29(1): p. 26470.
  • 76
    Bernstein, D., et al., Relationship of health-related quality of life to treatment adherence and sustained response in chronic hepatitis C patients. Hepatology, 2002. 35(3): p. 7048.
  • 77
    Katz, M.H., et al., Depression and use of mental health services among HIV-infected men. AIDS Care, 1996. 8(4): p. 43342.
  • 78
    Sambamoorthi, U, et al., Antidepressant treatment and health services utilization among HIV-infected medicaid patients diagnosed with depression. J Gen Intern Med, 2000. 15(5): p. 31120.
  • 79
    Stein, M.D., J. Maksad, and J. Clarke, Hepatitis C disease among injection drug users: knowledge, perceived risk and willingness to receive treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2001. 61(3): p. 2115.
  • 80
    Cotler, S.J., et al., Patients’ values for health states associated with hepatitis C and physicians’ estimates of those values. Am J Gastroenterol, 2001. 96(9): p. 27306.
    Direct Link:
  • 81
    Thio, C.L., et al., Screening for hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J Clin Microbiol, 2000. 38(2): p. 5757.
  • 82
    Bonacini, M., H.J. Lin, and F.B. Hollinger, Effect of coexisting HIV-1 infection on the diagnosis and evaluation of hepatitis C virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2001. 26(4): p. 3404.
  • 83
    Bangsberg, D., et al., Protease inhibitors in the homeless. Jama, 1997. 278(1): p. 635.
  • 84
    Des Jarlais, D.C. and A. Schuchat, Hepatitis C among drug users: deja vu all over again? Am J Public Health, 2001. 91(1): p. 212.
  • 85
    Bamberger, J.D., et al., Helping the urban poor stay with antiretroviral HIV drug therapy. Am J Public Health, 2000. 90(5): p. 699701.