• 1
    Grumbach K. Primary care in the United States—the best of times, the worst of times. N Engl J Med. 1999;341: 200810.
  • 2
    Moore G, Showstack J. Primary care medicine in crisis: toward reconstruction and renewal. Ann Intern Med. 2003; 138: 2447.
  • 3
    Association of American Medical Colleges. Decline of medical school applicants continues in 2002: projections for 2003 indicate rebound. 2002 Press Release Accessed September 16, 2003.
  • 4
    Association of American Medical Colleges. Medical student graduation questionnaire: all schools summary. 2002 data report, Accessed September 16, 2003.
  • 5
    Newton DA, Grayson MS. Trends in career choice by US medical school graduates. JAMA. 2003;290: 117982.
  • 6
    Landon BE, Reschovsky J, Blumenthal D. Changes in career satisfaction among primary care and specialist physicians, 1997–2001. JAMA. 2003;289: 4429.
  • 7
    Shanafelt TD, Sloan JA, Habermann TM, Association of Professors of Medicine. The well-being of physicians. Am J Med. 2003;114: 5139.
  • 8
    Linzer M, Konrad TR, Douglas J, et al. Managed care, time pressure, and physician job satisfaction: results from the physician worklife study. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15: 44150.
  • 9
    Schroeder SA. Primary care at a crossroads. Acad Med. 2002;77: 76773.
  • 10
    Larson EB. General internal medicine at the crossroads of prosperity and despair: caring for patients with chronic diseases in an aging society. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134: 9971000.
  • 11
    Wong MD, Shapiro MF, Boscardin WJ, Ettner SL. Contributions of major diseases to disparities in mortality. N Engl J Med. 2002;347: 158592.
  • 12
    Committee on Quality of Health Care in America Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2001; also available at
  • 13
    Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1999; also available at
  • 14
    Sandy LG. Homeostasis without reserve—the risk of health system collapse. N Engl J Med. 2002;347: 19715.
  • 15
    Anderson GF. Physician, public, and policymaker perspectives on chronic conditions. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163: 43742.
  • 16
    Peabody FW. The care of the patient. JAMA. 1927;88: 87782.
  • 17
    Haslam D. “Schools and hospitals” for “education and health”—general practice, not hospital care, accounts for most of health service. BMJ. 2003;326: 2356.
  • 18
    Safran DG. Defining the future of primary care: what can we learn from patients? Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 24855.
  • 19
    Zuger A. In an age of specialists one doctor is primary. New York Times. January 7, 2003.
  • 20
    Haas JS, Cook EF, Puopolo AL, et al. Is the professional satisfaction of general internists associated with patient satisfaction? J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15: 1228.
  • 21
    Eysenbach G. Infodemiology: the epidemiology of (mis) information. Am J Med. 2002;113: 1635.
  • 22
    Reiser SJ, Banner RS. The charter on medical professionalism and the limits of medical power. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 8446.
  • 23
    Heisler M, Bouknight RR, Hayward RA, Smith DM, Kerr EA. The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17: 24352.
  • 24
    Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis CL, et al. Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001;20: 6478.
  • 25
    Showstack J, Lurie N, Larson EB, Rothman AA, Hassmiller S. Primary care: the next renaissance. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 26872.
  • 26
    Casolino L, Gillies RR, Shortell SM, et al. External incentives, information technology, and organized processes to improve health care quality for patients with chronic diseases. JAMA. 2003;289: 43441.
  • 27
    Lesser CS, Ginsburg PB. Health care cost and access problems intensify: initial findings from HSC's recent site visits. Issue Brief: Findings from HSC. 2003;63: 16.
  • 28
    Moore G, Showstack J. Primary care medicine in crisis: toward reconstruction and renewal. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 2447.
  • 29
    Reinertsen JL. Zen and the art of physician autonomy maintenance. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 9925.
  • 30
    Bodenheimer T, Wagner E, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model. JAMA. 2002;288: 17759.
  • 31
    Bodenheimer T, Wagner EH, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, part 2. JAMA. 2002;288: 190914.
  • 32
    Ayanian JZ, Guadagnoli E, McNeil BJ, Cleary CD. Treatment and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction among patients of cardiologists and generalist physicians. Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157: 25706.
  • 33
    Weingarten SR, Lloyd L, Chiou CF, Braunstein GD. Do subspecialists working outside of their specialty provide less efficient and lower-quality care to hospitalized patients than do primary care physicians? Arch Intern Med. 2002;162: 52732.
  • 34
    Ayanian JZ, Landrum MB, Guadagnoli E, Gaccini P. Specialty of ambulatory care physicians and mortality among elderly patients after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2002;347: 167885.
  • 35
    Sandy LG, Schroeder SA. Primary care in a new era: disillusion and dissolution? Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 2627.
  • 36
    Leigh JP, Kravitz RL, Schembri M, Samuels SJ, Mobley S. Physician career satisfaction across specialties. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162: 157784.
  • 37
    Schroeder SA, Showstack JA, Gerbert B. Residency training in internal medicine: time for a change? Ann Intern Med. 1986;104: 55461.
  • 38
    Ginsberg PB. Payment and the future of primary care. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 2334.
  • 39
    McMurray JE, Linzer M, Konrad TR, et al. The work lives of women physicians: results from the Physician Work Life Study. The SGIM Career Satisfaction Study Group. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15: 37280.
  • 40
    Frank E, McMurray JE, Linzer M, Elon L. Career satisfaction of US women physicians. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159: 141726.
  • 41
    Dorsey ER, Jarjoura D, Rutecki GW. Influence of controllable lifestyle on recent trends in specialty choice by US medical students. JAMA. 2003;290: 11738.
  • 42
    Hoffman C, Rice D. Chronic Care in America: A 21st Century Challenge. Princeton, NJ: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 1996.
  • 43
    Anderson G, Horvath J. Chronic Conditions: Making the Case for Ongoing Care. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University; 2002.
  • 44
    Mijka M. As Americans age, geriatricians go missing. JAMA. 2002;287: 17923.
  • 45
    Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, Stukel TA, et al. The implications of regional variations in Medicare spending. Part 1: the content, quality, and accessibility of care. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 27387.
  • 46
    Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, Stukel TA, et al. The implications of regional variations in Medicare spending. Part 2: health outcomes and satisfaction with care. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 28898.
  • 47
    Phelps CE. What's enough, what's too much? Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 3489.
  • 48
    Wilensky G. The implications of regional variations in Medicare: what does it mean for Medicare? Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 3501.
  • 49
    Halvorsen G. Kaiser Permanente. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 232.
  • 50
    Romano M. Fever and chills: physician pay survey again shows wide disparities. Modern Healthcare. July 21,2003; 2931.
  • 51
    Thurow LC. Building wealth. Atlantic Monthly. 1999;283 : 5769.
  • 52
    Wachter RM, Goldman L. The hospitalist movement 5 years later. JAMA. 2002;287: 48794.
  • 53
    American College of Physicians Task Force on Physician Supply. The role of the general internist defined. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121: 61622.
  • 54
    Davidoff F. Advanced internal medicine (AIM). The training program in primary care internal medicine at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. Conn Med. 1981;45: 16774.
  • 55
    Lenfant C. Shattuck lecture—clinical research to clinical practice—lost in translation? N Engl J Med. 2003;349: 86874.
  • 56
    Sung NS, Crowley WF, Genel M, et al. Central challenges facing the national clinical research enterprise. JAMA. 2003;289: 127887.
  • 57
    Rosenberg RN. Translating biomedical research to the bedside: a national crisis and a call to action. JAMA. 2003;289: 13056.
  • 58
    Hening S, Quon AS, Meyer R, Korn D. The Changing Landscape for Clinical Research. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 1999.
  • 59
    Ochs J. Providers, plans misinformed about vendor software capability. Manag Care. 2002;11: 489.
  • 60
    Rothman AA, Wagner EH. Chronic illness management: what is the role of primary care? Ann Intern Med. 2003;138: 25661.
  • 61
    Horowitz CR, Goldberg HI, Wagner EH, et al. A randomized controlled trial of continuous quality improvement and academic detailing to implement clinical guidelines. J Qual Improv. 1996;22: 73450.
  • 62
    Goldberg HI, Wagner EH, Fihn SD, et al. A randomized controlled trial of academic detailing and continuous quality improvement techniques: increasing compliance with national guidelines for the primary care of hypertension and depression. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 1998;24: 13042.
  • 63
    Katon W, Von Korff M, Lin E, et al. Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines. Impact on depression in primary care. JAMA. 1995;273: 102631.
  • 64
    Katon W, Robinson P, Von Korff M, et al. A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53: 92432.
  • 65
    Katon W, Von Korff M, Lin E, et al. Stepped collaborative care for primary care patients with persistent symptoms of depression: a randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56: 110915.
  • 66
    Wells KB, Sherbourne C, Schoenbaum M, et al. Impact of disseminating quality improvement programs for depression in managed primary care: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2000; 283: 21220.
  • 67
    Hedrick SC, Chaney EF, Felker F, et al. Effectiveness of collaborative care depression treatment in VA primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18: 916.
  • 68
    Auerbach AD, Wachter RM, Katz P, et al. Implementation of a voluntary hospitalist service at a community teaching hospital: improved clinical efficiency and patient outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137: 85965.
  • 69
    Melzer D, Manning WG, Morrison J, et al. Effects of physician experience on costs and outcomes on an academic general medicine service: results of a trial of hospitalists. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137: 86674.
  • 70
    Kitahata MM, Koepsell TD, Deyo RA, et al. Physicians’ experience with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a factor in patients’ survival. N Engl J Med. 1996;334: 7016.
  • 71
    Indridason OS, Coffman CJ, Oddone EZ. Is specialty care associated with improved survival of patients with congestive heart failure? Am Heart J. 2003;145: 3009.