• 1
    Bindman AB, Majeed A. Primary care in the United States: organisation of primary care in the United States. BMJ. 2003;326: 6314.
  • 2
    St. Peter RF. Gatekeeping arrangements are in widespread use. Data Bull (Cent Stud Health Syst Change). 1997;7: 12.
  • 3
    Kulu-Glasgow I, Delnoij D, De Bakker D. Self-referral in a gatekeeping system: patients' reasons for skipping the general-practitioner. Health Policy. 1998;45: 22138.
  • 4
    Schneider SM, Gallery ME, Schafermeyer R, Zwemer FL. Emergency department crowding: a point in time. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42: 16772.
  • 5
    Derlet R, Richards J, Kravitz R. Frequent overcrowding in U.S. emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8: 1515.
  • 6
    Shah NM, Shah MA, Behbehani J. Predictors of non-urgent utilization of hospital emergency services in Kuwait. Soc Sci Med. 1996;42: 131323.
  • 7
    Lee A, Lau FL, Hazlett CB, et al. Factors associated with non-urgent utilization of accident and emergency services: a case–control study in Hong Kong. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51: 107585.
  • 8
    Fatovich DM. Emergency medicine. BMJ. 2002;324: 95862.
  • 9
    Dale J, Green J, Reid F, Glucksman E. Primary care in the accident and emergency department. I: Prospective identification of patients. BMJ. 1995;311: 4236.
  • 10
    Cooke MW, Wilson S, Pearson S. The effect of a separate stream for minor injuries on accident and emergency department waiting times. Emerg Med J. 2002;19: 2830.
  • 11
    Freeman GK, Meakin RP, Lawrenson RA, Leydon GM, Craig G. Primary care units in A&E departments in North Thames in the 1990s: initial experience and future implications. Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49: 10710.
  • 12
    Ward P, Huddy J, Hargreaves S, Touquet R, Hurley J, Fothergill J. Primary care in London: an evaluation of general practitioners working in an inner city accident and emergency department. J Accid Emerg Med. 1996;13: 115.
  • 13
    Dale J, Green J, Reid F, Glucksman E, Higgs R. Primary care in the accident and emergency department. II: Comparison of general practitioners and hospital doctors. BMJ. 1995;311: 42730.
  • 14
    Murphy AW, Bury G, Plunkett PK, et al. Randomised controlled trial of general practitioner versus usual medical care in an urban accident and emergency department: process, outcome, and comparative cost. BMJ. 1996;312: 113542.
  • 15
    Washington DL, Stevens CD, Shekelle PG, Baker DW, Fink A, Brook RH. Safely directing patients to appropriate levels of care: guideline-driven triage in the emergency service. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36: 1522.
  • 16
    Washington DL, Stevens CD, Shekelle PG, Henneman PL, Brook RH. Next-day care for emergency department users with nonacute conditions. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137: 70714.
  • 17
    Hallam L. Primary medical care outside normal working hours: review of published work. BMJ. 1994;308: 24953.
  • 18
    Olesen F, Jolleys JV. Out of hours service: the Danish solution examined. BMJ. 1994;309: 16246.
  • 19
    LambertsH, WoodM, eds. International Classification of Primary Care. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1987.
  • 20
    Britt H, Angelis M, Harris E. The reliability and validity of doctor-recorded morbidity data in active data collection systems. Scand J Prim Health Care. 1998;16: 505.
  • 21
    Starfield B. Is primary care essential? Lancet. 1994;344: 112933.
  • 22
    Dale J, Lang H, Roberts JA, Green J, Glucksman E. Cost effectiveness of treating primary care patients in accident and emergency: a comparison between general practitioners, senior house officers, and registrars. BMJ. 1996;312: 13404.
  • 23
    Coleman P, Irons R, Nicholl J. Will alternative immediate care services reduce demands for non-urgent treatment at accident and emergency? Emerg Med J. 2001;18: 4827.
  • 24
    Ferris TG, Chang Y, Blumenthal D, Pearson SD. Leaving gatekeeping behind—effects of opening access to specialists for adults in a health maintenance organization. N Engl J Med. 2001;345: 13127.
  • 25
    Schillinger D, Bibbins-Domingo K, Vranizan K, Bacchetti P, Luce JM, Bindman AB. Effects of primary care coordination on public hospital patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15: 32936.
  • 26
    Rask KJ, Deaton C, Culler SD, et al. The effect of primary care gatekeepers on the management of patients with chest pain. Am J Manag Care. 1999;5: 127482.
  • 27
    Grumbach K, Selby JV, Damberg C, et al. Resolving the gatekeeper conundrum: what patients value in primary care and referrals to specialists. JAMA. 1999;282: 2616.
  • 28
    Halm EA, Causino N, Blumenthal D. Is gatekeeping better than traditional care? A survey of physicians' attitudes. JAMA. 1997;278: 167781.
  • 29
    Boerma WG, Van Der Zee J, Fleming DM. Service profiles of general practitioners in Europe. European GP Task Profile Study. Br J Gen Pract. 1997;47: 4816.
  • 30
    Anderson GF, Hurst J, Hussey PS, Jee-Hughes M. Health spending and outcomes: trends in OECD countries, 1960–1998. Health Aff (Millwood). 2000;19: 1507.
  • 31
    Forrest CB. Primary care in the United States: primary care gatekeeping and referrals: effective filter or failed experiment? BMJ. 2003;326: 6925.