• 1
    Gnann JW Jr., Whitley RJ. Clinical practice. Herpes zoster. N Engl J Med. 2002;347: 3406.
  • 2
    Dworkin RH, Nagasako EM, Johnson RW, Griffin DR. Acute pain in herpes zoster: the famciclovir database project. Pain. 2001;94: 1139.
  • 3
    Chidiac C, Bruxelle J, Daures JP, et al. Characteristics of patients with herpes zoster on presentation to practitioners in France. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33: 629.
  • 4
    Haanpaa M, Laippala P, Nurmikko T. Allodynia and pinprick hypesthesia in acute herpes zoster, and the development of postherpetic neuralgia. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000;20: 508.
  • 5
    Jung BF, Johnson RW, Griffin DR, Dworkin RH. Risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster. Neurology. 2004;62: 154551.
  • 6
    Dworkin RH, Schmader KE. Treatment and prevention of postherpetic neuralgia. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36: 87782.
  • 7
    Davies L, Cossins L, Bowsher D, Drummond M. The cost of treatment for post-herpetic neuralgia in the UK. Pharmacoeconomics. 1994;6: 1428.
  • 8
    Helgason S, Petursson G, Gudmundsson S, Sigurdsson JA. Prevalence of postherpetic neuralgia after a first episode of herpes zoster: prospective study with long term follow up. BMJ. 2000;321: 7946.
  • 9
    Johnson RW. Consequences and management of pain in herpes zoster. J Infect Dis. 2002;186 (suppl 1): S8390.
  • 10
    Donahue JG, Choo PW, Manson JE, Platt R. The incidence of herpes zoster. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155: 16059.
  • 11
    Fleming DM, Cross KW, Cobb WA, Chapman RS. Gender difference in the incidence of shingles. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132: 15.
  • 12
    Kost RG, Straus SE. Postherpetic neuralgia—pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. N Engl J Med. 1996;335: 3242.
  • 13
    Opstelten W, Mauritz JW, De Wit NJ, Van Wijck AJ, Stalman WA, Van Essen GA. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: incidence and risk indicators using a general practice research database. Fam Pract. 2002;19: 4715.
  • 14
    Severson EA, Baratz KH, Hodge DO, Burke JP. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in Olmsted county, Minnesota: have systemic antivirals made a difference? Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121: 38690.
  • 15
    Gnann JW Jr. Varicella-zoster virus: atypical presentations and unusual complications. J Infect Dis. 2002;186 (suppl 1): S918.
  • 16
    Straus SE, Ostrove JM, Inchauspe G, et al. NIH conference. Varicella-zoster virus infections. Biology, natural history, treatment, and prevention. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108: 22137.
  • 17
    Hope-Simpson RE. The nature of herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis. Proc R Soc Med. 1965;58: 920.
  • 18
    McGregor RM. Herpes zoster, chicken-pox, and cancer in general practice. BMJ. 1957;32: 847.
  • 19
    Brisson M, Edmunds WJ, Law B, et al. Epidemiology of varicella zoster virus infection in Canada and the United Kingdom. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127: 30514.
  • 20
    Czernichow S, Dupuy A, Flahault A, Chosidow O. [Herpes zoster: incidence study among “sentinel” general practitioners]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2001;128: 497501.
  • 21
    Di Luzio PU, Arpinelli F, Visona G. Herpes zoster and its complications in Italy: an observational survey. J Infect. 1999;38: 11620.
  • 22
    Richards P. Shingles in one family practice. Arch Fam Med. 1996;5: 426.
  • 23
    Levin MJ, Smith JG, Kaufhold RM, et al. Decline in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity with increasing age and boosting with a high-hose VZV vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2003;188: 133644.
  • 24
    Buchbinder SP, Katz MH, Hessol NA, et al. Herpes zoster and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1992;166: 11536.
  • 25
    Barton T, Collis T, Stadtmauer E, Schuster M. Infectious complications the year after autologous bone marrow transplantation or peripheral stem cell transplantation for treatment of breast cancer. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32: 3915.
  • 26
    Engels EA, Rosenberg PS, Biggar RJ. Zoster incidence in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs and homosexual men, 1984–1997. District of Columbia Gay Cohort Study. Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study. J Infect Dis. 1999;180: 17849.
  • 27
    Mattiuzzi GN, Cortes JE, Talpaz M, et al. Development of varicella-zoster virus infection in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9: 97680.
  • 28
    Gourishankar S, McDermid JC, Jhangri GS, Preiksaitis JK. Herpes zoster infection following solid organ transplantation: incidence, risk factors and outcomes in the current immunosuppressive era. Am J Transplant. 2004;4: 10815.
  • 29
    Long JS. Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, Inc.; 1997.
  • 30
    U.S. Census Bureau. 2000 resident population estimates of the United States by age and sex. 3-15-2004.
  • 31
    U.S.Census Bureau. USA Statistics In Brief—Population By Sex, Age, and Region. Worldwide Web. July 2, 2004.
  • 32
    Ragozzino MW, Melton LJ III, Kurland LT, Chu CP, Perry HO. Population-based study of herpes zoster and its sequelae. Medicine. 1982;61: 3106.
  • 33
    Thomas SL, Wheeler JG, Hall AJ. Contacts with varicella or with children and protection against herpes zoster in adults: a case–control study. Lancet. 2002;360: 67882.
  • 34
    Law B, Fitzsimon C, Ford-Jones L, et al. Cost of chickenpox in Canada: part I. Cost of uncomplicated cases. Pediatrics. 1999;104: 16.
  • 35
    Somekh E, Dalal I, Shohat T, Ginsberg GM, Romano O. The burden of uncomplicated cases of chickenpox in Israel. J Infect. 2002;45: 2336.
  • 36
    Helgason S, Sigurdsson JA, Gudmundsson S. The clinical course of herpes zoster: a prospective study in primary care. Eur J Gen Pract. 1996;2: 126.
  • 37
    Rubben A, Baron JM, Grussendorf-Conen EI. Routine detection of herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus by polymerase chain reaction reveals that initial herpes zoster is frequently misdiagnosed as herpes simplex. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137: 25961.
  • 38
    Kalman CM, Laskin OL. Herpes zoster and zosteriform herpes simplex virus infections in immunocompetent adults. Am J Med. 1986;81: 7758.
  • 39
    McKendrick MW, Care CC, Kudesia G, Bates CJ, Oxley MK, Eley A. Is VZV reactivation a common cause of unexplained unilateral pain? Results of a prospective study of 57 patients. J Infect. 1999;39: 20912.
  • 40
    Fueyo MA, Lookingbill DP. Herpes zoster and occult malignancy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11: 4802.
  • 41
    Ragozzino MW, Melton LJ III, Kurland LT, Chu CP, Perry HO. Risk of cancer after herpes zoster: a population-based study. N Engl J Med. 1982;307: 3937.
  • 42
    Wurzel CL, Kahan J, Heitler M, Rubin LG. Prognosis of herpes zoster in healthy children. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140: 4778.
  • 43
    Feder HM Jr. Herpes zoster [letter]. N Engl J Med. 2003;348: 20445.
  • 44
    Feder HM Jr., Hoss DM. Herpes zoster in otherwise healthy children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23: 4517.
  • 45
    Brooks JM, Chrischilles E, Scott S, Ritho J, Chen-Hardee S. Information gained from linking SEER Cancer Registry Data to state-level hospital discharge abstracts. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results. Med Care. 2000;38: 113140.
  • 46
    Whittle J, Steinberg EP, Anderson GF, Herbert R. Accuracy of Medicare claims data for estimation of cancer incidence and resection rates among elderly Americans. Med Care. 1991;29: 122634.
  • 47
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2004 with Chart Book on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; 2004.