• 1
    Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. U.S. Census Bureau; 2000.
  • 2
    Hu DJ, Covell RM. Health care usage by Hispanic outpatients as function of primary language. West J Med. 1986;144: 4903.
  • 3
    Woloshin S, Schwartz LM, Katz SJ, Welch HG. Is language a barrier to the use of preventive services? J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12: 4727.
  • 4
    Gandhi TK, Burstin HR, Cook EF, et al. Drug complications in outpatients. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15: 14954.
  • 5
    Morales LS, Cunningham WE, Brown JA, Liu H, Hays RD. Are Latinos less satisfied with communication by health care providers? J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14: 40917.
  • 6
    Carrasquillo O, Orav EJ, Brennan TA, Burstin HR. Impact of language barriers on patient satisfaction in an emergency department. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14: 827.
  • 7
    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Hablamos Juntos: We Speak Together. 2002.
  • 8
    Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Coates WC, Pitkin K. Use and effectiveness of interpreters in an emergency department. JAMA. 1996;275: 7838.
  • 9
    Baker DW, Hayes R, Fortier JP. Interpreter use and satisfaction with interpersonal aspects of care for Spanish-speaking patients. Med Care. 1998;36: 146170.
  • 10
    Jacobs EA, Lauderdale DS, Meltzer D, Shorey JM, Levinson W, Thisted RA. Impact of interpreter services on delivery of health care to limited-English-proficient patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16: 46874.
  • 11
    Lee LJ, Batal HA, Maselli JH, Kutner JS. Effect of Spanish interpretation method on patient satisfaction in an urban walk-in clinic. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17: 6415.
  • 12
    Manson A. Language concordance as a determinant of patient compliance and emergency room use in patients with asthma. Med Care. 1988;26: 111928.
  • 13
    Ngo-Metzger Q, Legedza AT, Phillips RS. Asian Americans' reports of their health care experiences. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19: 1119.
  • 14
    Collins KS, Hughes D, Doty MS, Ives BL, Edwards JN, Tenney K. (The Commonwealth Fund). Diverse Communities Common Concerns: Assessing the Health Quality for Minority Americans. 2002.
  • 15
    Murray-Garcia JL, Selby JV, Schmittdiel J, Grumbach K, Quesenberry CP Jr. Radical and ethnic differences in a patient survey: patients' values, ratings and reports regarding physician primary care performance in a large health maintenance organization. Med Care. 2000;38: 30010.
  • 16
    Taira DA, Safran DG, Seto TB, et al. Asian-American patient ratings of physician primary care performance. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12: 23742.
  • 17
    Ngo-Metzger Q, Kaplan SH, Sorkin DH, Clarridge BR, Phillips RS. Surveying minorities with limited-English proficiency: does data collection method affect data quality among Asian Americans? Med Care. 2004;42: 893900.
  • 18
    Cleary PD, Edgman-Levitan S, Roberts M, et al. Patients evaluate their hospital care: a national survey. Health Aff (Millwood). 1991;10: 25467.
  • 19
    Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (CAHPS). Fact Sheet. AHRQ Publication No. 00-PO47. Agency for Health Care Research and Quality.
  • 20
    Ngo-Metzger Q, Massagli MP, Clarridge BR, et al. Linguistic and cultural barriers to care. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18: 4452.
  • 21
    SAS SAS Statistical Software [computer program]. Version 8.1 for Windows. Cary, NC: SAS; 1999.
  • 22
    SUDAAN. Software for the Statistical Analysis of Correlated Data [computer program]. Version 7.5.6 for Windows. Research Triangle Park, NC: SUDAAN; 2002.
  • 23
    Rivadeneyra R, Elderkin-Thompson V, Silver RC, Waitzkin H. Patient centeredness in medical encounters requiring an interpreter. Am J Med. 2000;108: 4704.
  • 24
    Fagan MJ, Diaz JA, Reinert SE, Sciamanna CN, Fagan DM. Impact of interpretation method on clinic visit length. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18: 6348.
  • 25
    Kravitz RL, Helms LJ, Azari R, Antonius D, Melnikow J. Comparing the use of physician time and health care resources among patients speaking English, Spanish, and Russian. Med Care. 2000;38: 72838.
  • 26
    Laveist TA, Nuru-Jeter A. Is doctor-patient race concordance associated with greater satisfaction with care? J Health Soc Behav. 2002;43: 296306.
  • 27
    Cooper-Patrick L, Gallo JJ, Gonzales JJ, et al. Race, gender, and partnership in the patient-physician relationship. JAMA. 1999;282: 5839.
  • 28
    Betancourt JR, Green AR, Carrillo JE, Ananeh-Firempong O II. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Rep. 2003;118: 293302.
  • 29
    Karliner LS, Perez-Stable EJ, Gildengorin G. The language divide. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19: 17583.
  • 30
    Carrillo JE, Green AR, Betancourt JR. Cross-cultural primary care: a patient-based approach. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130: 82934.
  • 31
    Laws MB, Heckscher R, Mayo SJ, Li W, Wilson IB. A new method for evaluating the quality of medical interpretation. Med Care. 2004;42: 7180.
  • 32
    Massachusetts General Hospital. Medical interpreter services. Available at: Accessed July 1, 2004.
  • 33
    Poss JE, Rangel R. Working effectively with interpreters in the primary care setting. Nurse Pract. 1995;20: 437.
  • 34
    Betancourt JR, Carrillo JE, Green AR. Hypertension in multicultural and minority populations: linking communication to compliance. Curr Hypertension Rep. 1999;1: 4828.
  • 35
    Stewart AL, Napoles-Springer A, Perez-Stable EJ. Interpersonal processes of care in diverse populations. Milbank Quart. 1999;77: 30539, 274.
  • 36
    Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2001.
  • 37
    Flores G, Laws MB, Mayo SJ, et al. Errors in medical interpretation and their potential clinical consequences in pediatric encounters. Pediatrics. 2003;111: 614.
  • 38
    Perez-Stable EJ, Napoles-Springer A, Miramontes JM. The effects of ethnicity and language on medical outcomes of patients with hypertension or diabetes. Med Care. 1997;35: 12129.
  • 39
    Jacobs EA, Agger-Gupta N, Chen AH, Piotrowski A, Hardt EJ. (The California Endowment). Language Barriers in Health Care Settings: An Annotated Bibliography of the Research Literature. 2003.
  • 40
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. National Standards of Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office; 2000.
  • 41
    Vandervort EB, Melkus GD. Linguistic services in ambulatory clinics. J Transcult Nurs. 2003;14: 35866.
  • 42
    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Physician perspectives on communication barriers: insights from focus groups with physicians who treat non-English proficient and limited-English proficient patients. 2004.