• 1
    Coley CM, Barry MJ, Fleming C, Mulley AG. Early detection of prostate cancer, Part I: prior probability and effectiveness of tests. The American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126: 394406.
  • 2
    Woolf SH. Screening for prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen: an examination of the evidence. N Engl J Med. 1995;333: 14015.
  • 3
    Stamey TA, Caldwell M, McNeal JE, Nolley R, Hemenez M, Downs J. The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years? J Urol. 2004;172: 1297301.
  • 4
    Gohagan JK, Prorok PC, Kramer BS, Cornett JE. Prostate cancer screening in the prostate, lung, eolorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial of the National Cancer Institute. J Urol. 1994;152: 19059.
  • 5
    Schroder FH, Kranse R, Rietbergen J, Hoedemaeke R, Kirkels W. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. (ERSPC): an update. Members of the ERSPC, Section Rotterdam. Eur Urol. 1999;35: 53943.
  • 6
    American College of Physicians. Screening for prostate cancer. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126: 4804.
  • 7
    American Cancer Society. Summary of American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of cancer in asymptomatic people. In: Cancer Facts and Figures 2001. Atlanta, GA: National Home Office, American Cancer Society Inc.; 2001: 35.
  • 8
    American Academy of Family Physicians. Introduction to AAFP summary of policy recommendations for periodic health examination. Available at: Accessed July 10, 2001.
  • 9
    American Urological Association. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) best practice policy. Oncology. 2000;14: 26772; 277–80.
  • 10
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate cancer: recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137: 9156.
  • 11
    Moran WP, Cohen SJ, Preisser JS, Wofford JL, Shelton BJ, McClatchey MW. Factors influencing use of the prostate-specific antigen screening test in primary care. Am J Manag Care. 2000;6: 31524.
  • 12
    McKnight JT, Tietze PH, Adcock BB, Maxwell AJ, Smith WO, Nagy MC. Screening for prostate cancer: a comparison of urologists and primary care physicians. South Med J. 1996;89: 8858.
  • 13
    Fowler FJ Jr., Bin L, Collins MM, et al. Prostate cancer screening and beliefs about treatment efficacy: a national survey of primary care physicians and urologists. Am J Med. 1998;104: 52632.
  • 14
    Sirovich BE, Schwartz LM, Woloshin S. Screening men for prostate and colorectal cancer in the United States. Does practice reflect the evidence? JAMA. 2003;289: 141420.
  • 15
    Voss JD, Schnectman JM. Prostate cancer screening practices and beliefs. A longitudinal physician survey. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16: 8317.
  • 16
    Ross LE, Coates RJ, Breen N, Uhler RJ, Potosky AL, Blackman D. Prostate-specific antigen test use reported in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Prev Med. 2004;38: 73244.
  • 17
    Livingston P, Cohen P, Frydenberg M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and experience associated with testing for prostate cancer: a comparison between male doctors and men in the community. Intern Med J. 2002;32: 21523.
  • 18
    Chan ECY, Vernon SW, Haynes MC, O'Donnell FT, Ahn C. Physician perspectives on the importance of facts men ought to know about prostate-specific antigen testing. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18: 3506.
  • 19
    Kalish LA, McDougal WS, McKinlay JB. Family history and the risk of prostate cancer. Urology. 2000;56: 8036.
  • 20
    Cantor SB, Volk RJ, Cass AR, Gilani J, Spann SJ. Psychological benefits of prostate cancer screening: the role of reassurance. Health Expectations. 2002;5: 10413.