• 1
    Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. Diabetes trends in the US: 1990–1998. Diab Care. 2000;23:127883.
  • 2
    Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 2001;286:1195200.
  • 3
    Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Self-reported health conditions and risk factors of Medicare beneficiaries, by age and gender, 2000. Available at: Accessed April 12, 2004.
  • 4
    Bertoni AG, Krop JS, Anderson GF, Brancati FL. Diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in a national sample of U.S. elders. Diab Care. 2002;25:4715.
  • 5
    Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Bain RP, Rohde RD. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:145662.
  • 6
    Ravid M, Lang R, Rachmani R, Lishner M. Long-term renoprotective effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A 7-year follow-up study. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:2869.
  • 7
    Ravid M, Brosh D, Levi Z, Bar-Dayan Y, Ravid D, Rachmani R. Use of enalapril to attenuate decline in renal function in normotensive, normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128:9828.
  • 8
    Viberti G, Mogensen CE, Groop LC, Pauls JF. Effect of Captopril on progression to clinical proteinuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria. JAMA. 1994;271:2759.
  • 9
    Kvetny J, Gregersen G, Pedersen RS. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of perindopril in normotensive, normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Q J Med. 2001;94:8994.
  • 10
    Ahmad J, Siddiqui MA, Ahamd H. Effective postponement of diabetic nephropathy with enalapril in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Diab Care. 1997;20:157681.
  • 11
    ACE Inhibitors in Diabetic Nephropathy Trialist Group. Should all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors? A meta-analysis of individual patient data. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:3709.
  • 12
    Haider A, Oh P, Peloso PM. An evidence-based review of ACE inhibitors in incipient diabetic nephropathy. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;7:1159.
  • 13
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:14553.
  • 14
    Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet. 2000;355:2539.
  • 15
    Niskanen L, Hedner T, Hansson L, Lanke J, Niklason A for the CAPPP Study Group. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertiensive diabetic patients on first-line therapy with an ACE inhibitor compared with a diuretic/[beta]-blocker-based treatment regimen: a subanalysis of the Captopril prevention project. Diab Care. 2001;24:20916.
  • 16
    Brenner BM, Cooper ME, De Zeeuw D, et al. Effect of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:8619.
  • 17
    Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, Berl T, Pohl MA. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with neuropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:85160.
  • 18
    Parving HH, Lehnert H, Brochner-Mortensen J, Gomis R, Andersen S, Amer P. Irbesartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria study group. The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:8708.
  • 19
    Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlof B, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomized trial against atenolol. Lancet. 2002;359:100410.
  • 20
    The EUCLID Study Group. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of lisinopril in normotensive patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Lancet. 1997;349:178792.
  • 21
    Shlipak M. Diabetic nephropathy. Clin Evid. 2005;13:14954.
  • 22
    Bennett PH, Haffner S, Kasiske BL, et al. Screening and management of microalbuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: recommendations to the scientific advisory board of the national kidney foundation from an ad hoc committee of the council on diabetes mellitus of the national kidney foundation. Am J Kidney Dis. 1995;25:10712.
  • 23
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diab Care. 1997;20 (supp 1):S5S13.
  • 24
    Konstam M, Dracup K, Baker D, et al. Heart failure: evaluation and care of patents with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction. In: MA Konstam, ed. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 11. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy & Research; 1994.
  • 25
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diab Care. 2005;28 (suppl 1):S4S36.
  • 26
    Sixth report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:241342.
  • 27
    NHANES 1999–2000 Data Release. Prescription medication subsection of dietary supplements and prescription medication section. Available at: Accessed October 4, 2005.
  • 28
    NHANES 2001–2002 Data Documentation: April 2005. Prescription medication subsection of dietary supplements and prescription medication section. Available at: Accessed October 4, 2005.
  • 29
    Paster RZ, Snavely DB, Sweet AR, et al. Use of losartan in the treatment of hypertensive patients with a history of cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Clin Therap. 1998; 20:97889.
  • 30
    Tanser PH, Campbell LM, Carranza JK, Toutouzas P, Watts Rfor the Multicentre Cough Study Group. Candesartan cilexetil is not associated with cough in hypertensive patients with enalapril-induced cough. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:2148.
  • 31
    NHANES. NHANES analytic guidelines: June 2004 version. Available at: Accessed March 3, 2005.
  • 32
    Goldberg RB. Cardiovascular disease in patients who have diabetes. Cardiol Clin. 2003;21:399413.
  • 33
    Kramer HJ, Nguyen QD, Curhan G, Hsu C. Renal insufficiency in the absence of albuminuria and retinopathy among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2003;289:32737.
  • 34
    Dunn EJ, Burton CJ, Feest TG. The care of patients with diabetic nephropathy: audit, feedback, and improvement. Q J Med. 1999;92:4439.
  • 35
    Gold JA. A word from WIPRO: improving use of ACE inhibitors in diabetic nephropathy. Wisc Med J 1996:5889.
  • 36
    Scarsi KK, Bjornson DC. The use of ACE inhibitors as renoprotective agents in Medicaid patients with diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34:10026.
  • 37
    Gordian ME, Kelly J. Why patients with diabetes, hypertension and/or proteinuria are NOT on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Alaska Med. 1998;40:514.
  • 38
    Rosen AB, Karter AJ, Liu JY, Selby JV, Schneider EC. Use of ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in high-risk clinical and ethnic groups with diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:6717.
  • 39
    Gerstein HC, Mann JFE, Yi Q, et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA. 2001;286:4216.
  • 40
    Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:22934.
  • 41
    Hillen T, Coshall C, Tilling K, Rudd AG, McGovern R, Wolfe CDA. Cause of stroke recurrence is multifactorial: patterns, risk factors, and outcomes of stroke recurrence in the South London Stroke Register. Stroke. 2003;34:145763.
  • 42
    Valmadrid CT, Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BEK. The risk of cardiovascular disease mortality associated with microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1093100.
  • 43
    National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA). The state of managed care quality, 2001. Available at: Accessed September 12, 2002.
  • 44
    Bicket DP. Using ACE inhibitors appropriately. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66:4618.
  • 45
    Reardon LC, Macpherson DS. Hyperkalemia in outpatients using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. How much should we worry? Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2632.