Linguistic Disparities in Health Care Access and Health Status Among Older Adults

Authors


Address correspondence and requests for reprints to Dr. Ponce: UCLA Department of Health Services, 31-254B Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (e-mail: nponce@ucla.edu).

Abstract

BACKGROUND: English proficiency may be important in explaining disparities in health and health care access among older adults.

SUBJECTS: Population-based representative sample (N=18,659) of adults age 55 and older from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey.

METHODS: We examined whether health care access and health status vary among older adults who have limited English proficiency (LEP), who are proficient in English but also speak another language at home (EP), and who speak English only (EO). Weighted bivariate and multivariate survey logit analyses were conducted to examine the role of language ability on 2 aspects of access to care (not having a usual source of care, delays in getting care) and 2 indicators of health status (self-rated general health and emotional health).

RESULTS: Limited-English proficient adults were significantly worse off (1.68 to 2.49 times higher risk) than EO older adults in 3 of our 4 measures of access to care and health status. Limited-English proficient older adults had significantly worse access to care and health status than EP older adults except delays in care. English proficient adults had 52% increased risk of reporting poorer emotional health compared with EO speakers.

CONCLUSIONS: Provision of language assistance services to patients and training of providers in cultural competence are 2 means by which health care systems could reduce linguistic barriers, improve access to care, and ultimately improve health status for these vulnerable populations.

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