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Keywords:

  • Echinocytes;
  • Hemodialysis;
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Abstract: In 18 uremic patients under regular hemodialysis (HD) with bicarbonate dialysate, the echinocytes and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) were determined in 4 blood samples collected from the arterial line at 0, 45, 120, and 240 min (end-HD) in one HD session by a bio-incompatible dialyzer and in another by a biocompatible one. In the HD session by a bioincompatible dialyzer, the mean values (±SEM) of echinocytes (%) at 0. 45, 120, and 240 min were 8.89 ± 1.15, 20.77 ± 2.35, 7.39 ± 1.1, 5.27 ± 0.66 and of ESR (mm/h) were 65.00 * 6.26, 47.05 ± 3.89, 66.72 ± 6.00, 68.44 ± 5.92, respectively. According to these findings, echinocytes show a transient significant increase at 45 min HD in comparison to those at 0 (p < 0.001), 120 (p < 0.001), and 240 (p < 0.001) min while ESR shows a transient significant decrease at 45 min HD compared with the rates at 0 (p < 0.05), 120 (p < 0.05) and 240 (p < 0.01) min. In the HD sessions with the biocompatible dialyzer, the mean values (±EM) of echinocytes at the aforementioned 4 time points were 8.55 ± 1.10, 17.05 ± 2.40, 17.05 ± 1.19, and 5.11 ± 0.75%, and the ESR values were 60.89 i 6.08, 44.33 ± 4.18, 62.94 ± 6.55, and 65.61 ± 6.13 mm/h, respectively. These values also show a transient significant increase of echinocytes at 45 min HD in comparison with those at 0 (p < 0.01), 120 (p < 0.01), and 240 (p < 0.001) min, with a parallel transient decrease of ESR at 45 min HD as compared to the ones at 0 (p < 0.05), 120 (p < 0.05), and 240 (p < 0.05) min. Although the echinocytosis at 45 min HD was more prominent in HD by the bioincompatible than by the biocompatible dialyzer, the comparison between these values indicates no significant difference in the echinocytes or the ESR. In conclusion, uremic patients receiving HD exhibit echinocytes, the percentage of which shows a transient increase at 45 min HD that returns to about baseline at 120 min HD. In parallel with the changes in echinocytes, the ESR shows an inverse change at 45 min HD which returns to baseline at 120 min HD.