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Functional Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Muscles: An Experimental Evaluation


  • Presented in part at the 9th Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation held on September 19–22, 2007 in Krems, Austria.

Dr. Stanley Salmons, Muscle Research Group, Department of Human Anatomy & Cell Biology, The Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK. E-mail:


Abstract:  For many years there has been a dearth of effective treatment options for the severe wasting and secondary consequences of motor nerve injury. In recent years, however, an intensive regime of electrical stimulation has been shown to have considerable therapeutic benefits. This article reviews the results of an extensive study designed to address the clinically relevant issues in an appropriate animal model. The study reveals both the benefits and the limitations of the technique, but strongly endorses the therapeutic advantages of introducing a program of stimulation during the initial, nondegenerative phase of the muscle response to nerve or root injury.