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Keywords:

  • Arteriosclerosis;
  • Endotoxin;
  • Hemodialysis;
  • Malondialdehyde-low-density lipoprotein;
  • Oxidative stress;
  • Oxidized-low-density lipoprotein

Abstract:  The objective of this study was to investigate changes in oxidative stress associated with the cleaning of the dialysate. Thirty-six dialysis patients were studied. Changes in soluble CD-14 (sCD-14), malondialdehyde-low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), and oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) were monitored for 1 year before and 1 year after dialysate cleaning. The mean endotoxin (ET) level in the dialysate had previously been confirmed to decrease from 39.0 EU/L to an undetectable level after the cleaning. The mean levels of sCD-14, MDA-LDL, and Ox-LDL decreased significantly after the cleaning (sCD-14, P < 0.0001; MDA-LDL, P < 0.001; Ox-LDL, P < 0.001). One year after the cleaning, six cases still showed high levels of MDA-LDL and Ox-LDL. Cardiovascular events occurred in four of those six cases within 2.8 years after the cleaning. These four patients suffered from strong oxidative stress during dialysis, even after the cleaning. We therefore concluded that high levels of MDA-LDL and Ox-LDL are improved in dialysis patients by cleaning of the dialysate. These results indicate that even a dialysate containing 50 EU/L or less ET may stimulate monocytes and cause oxidative stress. They also suggest that even low levels of ET may aggravate arteriosclerosis in dialysis patients. Thus, in order to prevent cardiovascular events in dialysis patients, it is necessary to purify the dialysate.