Soil microbial activity and soil nutrients were monitored on a revegetated coal surface mine in southwestern Wyoming from the initial planting in 1982 through 1987. Total soil nitrogen (N) and organic matter did not change during this period. However, despite no changes in available phosphorus (P) concentrations, the total P declined over 50% during the five-year period, with no apparent reduction in the loss rates. The greatest loss was in the bound inorganic P pool. Moisture appeared not to limit microbial mass-C. Microbial mass-C was higher under shrubs than in interspaces and increased with time. Total organic matter did not increase. Thus, the ratio of microbial mass-C to organic matter-C increased during the study period. This suggests that the input of readily decomposable substrate may limit microbial activity. During the study period, all above-ground litter was removed by wind. Root production in the surface soils was low and highly variable and, in this habitat, probably did not contribute largely to the organic matter status. These data suggest that despite an apparent recovery of many parameters used to indicate reclamation or restoration success, the soil-bound P pools could be undergoing a loss. Microbial-C and organic matter changes indicate a system that is not approaching equilibrium within the required monitoring period of most restoration efforts. These parameters could eventually reduce the recovery potential of restored sites.