Biology and Management of Sagittaria latifolia Willd (Broad-leaf Arrow-head) for Wetland Restoration and Creation


  • The USDA Soil Conservation Service, Midwest National Technical Center, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 and Wetlands Research Inc., P.O. Box 225, Wadsworth, Illinois 60083 provided financial and technical support for completion of the document.


Sagittaria latifolia Willd. is commonly used for wetland enhancement, restoration, and creation. It is a C3 species that is widely distributed in southeastern Canada and the eastern half of the United States. It provides habitat and food benefits to waterfowl and improves water quality in wetlands. Monoecious and dioecious varieties occur in the U.S. that exhibit different life history characteristics. Clonal spread occurs through growth of rhizomes and tubers. S. latifolia grows in a wide range of fresh water and soil conditions. It persists in stabilized water levels at depths of less than 50 cm and few drawdowns. The species tolerates and assimilates high levels of nutrients and heavy metals. There is a limited data base on the installation and management of the species. Tubers and plants are preferred plant materials for field establishment. Herbivory by insects, waterfowl, and other animals may greatly reduce planting success. Future studies relevant to improvement of propagule storage, planting conditions, and management of mature plants for wetland projects are suggested.