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Abstract

The rates of seston elimination by zooplankton and primary production were measured in Funada-ike Pond, typical of human-made impoundments in Japan, from April to September in order to evaluate various treatments of the pond aimed at improving water quality by reducing seston abundance. The treatments included draining the pond water, dredging the bottom mud, eliminating the wastewater inflow, and biomanipulation through removal of all fish. After the treatment, seston abundance was reduced from more than 10 to 0.4–2.5 mg C/liter, and large daphnid species, Daphnia similis and D. magna, occurred and predominated in the zooplankton community. Seston abundance remained at a relatively low level from June to August but increased markedly in late August, while the biomass of zooplankton became high from June to mid-August and then decreased. A decrease in seston abundance was found when the elimination rate exceeded the primary production rate. The results indicate that the development of daphnid populations was effective in keeping seston abundance at a low level. The relationship between the rate of primary production and the zoo-plankton biomass required to offset this rate, however, suggests that biomanipulation aimed at increasing zooplankton biomass alone is less effective in a pond with a high primary production. The success in improving water quality in this pond seems to depend not only on the increase in biomass of large daphnid species that resulted mainly from the removal of fish, but also on the decrease in nutrient load that was realized by the other treatments.