Seed Ecology of Woody Species in a Caribbean Dry Forest



Peak flowering activity among woody species in the tropical dry forests of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, coincided with the brief spring rainy season but continued at moderate levels for six months, abating with the autumn rains. Fruit maturation showed a major peak in the long winter dry season and a minor crest during the summer dry season. Seeds of wind-dispersed species disseminated mainly during the winter dry season, while animal dispersal of seeds (74% of all woody species) followed the bimodal pattern (for wet and dry seasons) described for the community as a whole. Under shadehouse conditions, most dry forest tree species germinated well (> 80%) and emerged promptly (within four weeks of planting) and synchronously (90% emergence within a four-week interval). Nine of 29 species tested in the shadehouse manifested dormancy of at least six weeks. Seed germinability varied among tree species, and the viability of most species began to decline following six months of dry storage. Few species retained high germinability after nine months of dry storage. The species composition of soil seed banks did not correspond closely with above-ground communities on three forested sites of varying stand age. In the youngest stand (35 years old), dominated by the weedy, arborescent legume Leucaena leucocephala, the soil seed bank was also dominated by this species, but no seeds of any other tree species were found in the soil samples. Seeds of native trees were scarcely encountered (only one indigenous species) in soil seed bank samples of three forest sites. Local seed rain from less disturbed forest may not be sufficient for prompt recovery of the dry forest community on degraded sites.