To rehabilitate degraded forestlands and conserve the remaining forests in Kalimantan, effective measures are needed that accommodate various land uses in the landscape. We present a pragmatic model for prioritizing target areas for rehabilitation and discuss a potential approach, combining traditional reforestation and the forest management methods of local Dayak tribes with the operations of a commercial tree plantation venture, to promote the rehabilitation of elements of the tropical lowland rainforest. We characterized the vegetation and land use in the study area and assume that rehabilitation and conservation value will be maximized by concentrating rehabilitation efforts around forest patches with high cultural and economic value to the local Dayaks. We simulated potential enlargement of these culturally important forests and built a model to calculate a rehabilitation value for each forest fragment and fragment group with easily measurable criteria of vegetation and area. The model gives priority to areas where large continuous areas of culturally important forests already exist and/or will be created. The individual culturally important forest patches and their total area in the landscape are small, but even a small potential enlargement may be enough to establish relatively large concentrations. The potential matrix area for rehabilitation is dominated by young successional woody vegetation. Forested areas, although heavily degraded, connect several culturally important forest concentrations and are the most desirable target for rehabilitation. A well-managed commercial tree plantation can enhance conditions for the protection and rehabilitation of degraded forestlands through traditional reforestation and forest management methods.