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Keywords:

  • Quercuo garryana;
  • oak savanna restoration;
  • tree shelter;
  • mulch;
  • irrigation;
  • fertilization;
  • planting date

Abstract

The extent of Oregon white oak woodland and savanna ecosystems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest has diminished significantly during the past century due to land use changes and fire suppression. Planting Oregon white oak seedlings is often necessary when restoring these plant communities. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of post-planting treatments for establishing Oregon white oak seedlings on sites characterized by low growing season precipitation and coarse-textured soils. We evaluated the effects of control of competing vegetation, tree shelters, fertilization, irrigation, and planting date on growth of planted seedlings. Survival was generally high (90%), but growth rate varied substantially among treatments. Plastic mulch increased soil water content and increased annual seedling height growth by an average of 56% relative to one-time manual removal of competing vegetation. Solid-walled tree shelters reduced browse damage and increased mean annual height growth compared to mesh shelters and no shelter by averages of 7.5 and 10.9 cm, respectively. Controlled-release fertilizer applied at planting did not consistently increase seedling growth. Weekly irrigation (3.8 L/seedling) increased first-year seedling growth only where mulch also was applied. Seedlings planted by late February had greater root growth by summer than those planted in early April. Soil water management was necessary for best seedling growth, and the improved height growth in solid-walled tree shelters allowed the terminal shoot to grow more quickly above the height of animal browse. Our results indicate effective methods for establishing Oregon white oak seedlings, but these results may also be applicable to establishment of other tree species on similarly droughty sites.