• Cascade Range;
  • forest restoration;
  • land birds;
  • Ponderosa pine


We monitored the short-term (>3 years) response of land birds to forest restoration treatments in Ponderosa pine forests located on the east slope of the North Cascade Range. Restoration treatments were designed to create stand structure and composition similar to pre-settlement forests, which were influenced by a frequent fire regime. Overall, avian community composition was changed as a result of the treatments. Cassin’s Finch, Chipping Sparrow, and Yellow-rumped Warbler were found at higher densities in treated stands, whereas Mountain Chickadee, Western Tanager, and Red-breasted Nuthatch had higher densities in untreated stands. White-headed Woodpecker and Western Bluebird were only detected in the treated stands. Brown-headed Cowbird showed no response to treatments. We detected changes in the density of four of five foraging guilds in response to restoration treatments. Tree seedeaters, low understory and ground insectivores, and aerial insectivores all increased in density in treated stands. Overall, bark insectivores showed no density response to treatments. Tree foliage insectivore density was lower in treated than in untreated stands. Overall avian density, density of neotropical migrants, and density of some focal species were higher in treated stands. Monitoring should be continued to understand the longer-term (5–10 year) responses of land birds and to guide future forest restoration efforts.