Twenty-nine female migraineurs were assigned to biofeedback and 20 to drug therapy. The average personality profile of the two groups showed neuroticism, with scores on scales 1, 2 and 3 statistically equal between the two groups. Following the therapy, neuroticism significantly improved in the clinically improved biofeedback group, but remained unchanged in clinically unimproved biofeedback and medication, as well as medication improved groups. Neuroticism thus seems to be an integral part of migraine etiology rather than a result of chronic pain. Therefore, volitional alteration of the psychophysiological background of migraineurs by biofeedback as a causative therapy should be preferred to the drugs whenever possible.