The present paper reviews the utilization of self-management procedures (self-control, discrimination, and self-maintenance) in the biofeedback treatment of headache. A wide variety of methodological shortcomings were evident. Few studies either included adequate self-control designs or demonstrated that subjects acquired self-control of the targeted response. Discrimination training was reported in only one study. Self-maintenance procedures were widely used, but were not based on the prior acquisition of self-control by subjects. Suggestions for the assessment and training of self-management strategies are presented. Future research should report the relationship between self-control, discrimination, and self-maintenance in regard to treatment outcome. It is concluded that a determination of the efficacy of biofeedback for headache must await further clarification of these issues.