A retrospective study of strokes due to ischemic cerebrovascular disease in young adults was undertaken, and the incidence of migraine as an etiologic factor was studied. Within the last five years, fifteen patients between the ages of twenty and forty were admitted to the USAF Medical Center Wright-Patterson with the diagnosis of stroke due to ischemic cerebrovascular disease. These patients underwent extensive evaluations including CT scan and/or cerebral angiography. In four patients (27%), there was a previously documented history of classic migraine. Three patients experienced migraine attacks at the time of their stroke. The fourth had an antecedent history of classic migraine with basilar artery migraine symptoms, and suffered a lateral medullary syndrome. The remaining data are as follows: 3 patients (20%) had valvular heart disease, 1 patient had sickle cell anemia, 1 patient had a dural sinus thrombosis following infection and 6 patients (40%) had no discernible etiology. We conclude that migraine may represent a more common etiology of stroke in young adults than has been previously recognized.