Is the Muscular Model of Headache Still Viable? A Review of Conflicting Data


  • Howard Pikoff M.A.



Recent behavioral studies have called into question the accepted model of muscle contractionheadache. This review examines origins of the model, supportive and disconfirming findings,methodological issues, and an alternative view of muscle contraction as precipitant, consequence, oraltogether absent in headache. It is concluded that overuse has weakened but not completelydiscredited the muscular model. Although some headaches are doubtless caused by muscularhyper-activity, true muscle contraction headache is probably far less common than traditionallyassumed.