The purpose of this study was first, to examine the efficacy of adding a cognitive therapy component to traditional relaxation training; and second, to examine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of administering these treatments in a largely self-ad-ministered format for headache patients. Twenty-five muscle contraction headache sufferers were assigned to one of three treatment conditions, which provided either relaxation training alone or relaxation training in combination with cognitive therapy. Procedures were delivered utilizing either a therapist-ad-ministered office-based format, or a largely self-administered format designed to provide significantly less therapist contact than the office-based procedure. At one-month post-treatment, patients in all 3 conditions exhibited significant decreases in headache activity, with no significant differences between the groups, although then appeared to be a slight advantage for the cognitive groups and for groups with increased therapist contact. Patients in all 3 groups evidenced significantly greater use of relaxation and cognitive strategies at post-treatment, with the combined treatment groups showing slightly greater use of the latter. Additionally, all 3 groups decreased their use of traditional medical strategies. There were no significant differences in cost-effectiveness among the 3 groups. However, overall this study suggests that largely self-administered treatments can result in significant improvements in headache, while substantially reducing the total amount of therapist contact.