In order to investigate the hypothesis that migraine has a detrimental effect on cognitive functioning, 37 female migraine patients and 34 nonheadache female controls underwent a battery of neuropsychologic tests. No significant difference in test performance between groups was found. There was no relation between the length of migraine history or medication use and the level of impairment of cognitive abilities. The patient and control groups differed significantly on several self-report measures known to interfere with performance. Patients reported higher trait and state anxiety levels, higher debilitating anxiety and state depression, and less vigor. Statistical correction for these variables, however, did not result in significant group differences of cognitive performance. The results suggest that the general population of female migraine patients show no indication of cognitive impairment.