Childhood headache is a common pediatric problem. Clinical researchers have evaluated several behavioral treatments, such as biofeedback and relaxation training, that may be viable interventions. Adding a developmental perspective to the evaluation and treatment of childhood headache is a likely way to increase the effectiveness of these strategies. This paper presents developmental issues related to the assessment and treatment of childhood headache. Three major areas of development are examined and the impact of these areas on the treatment and assessment of headache are discussed. The three major areas are cognitive development, self-regulation and psychosocial development. Provided are practical suggestions for the application of child development principles to assessment and intervention practices that may be more developmentally appropriate.