The Incidence of the life time history of both maternal mi-graine and depression were assessed in children with headache, migraine, recurrent abdominal pain and abdominal migraine. An epidemiological survey of 1,104 children registered with a general practice was undertaken. The Incidence of maternal migraine and depression agreed with previous estimates. Children with migraine had a greater proportion of mothers with a history of migraine than those who experienced headache alone compared with controls. The survey showed that mothers with depression predisposed their children to headache but not specifically migraine. A history of maternal depression and migraine was significantly more common and proportionately higher in children with abdominal migraine and recurrent abdominal pain.