• childhood acute recurrent headache;
  • migraine;
  • tension-type headache;
  • serum S100β protein;
  • biochemical marker of migraine

Objective.—To examine the role of glia-derived S100β protein and to evaluate its use as a biochemical marker in childhood acute recurrent headache.

Methods.—Twenty-five patients with acute recurrent headache (according to International Headache Society criteria) from our department's Headache Clinic were studied. Blood samples for measurement of serum S100β were drawn: (1) ≤3-hour post pain attack from our patients and (2) from 23 healthy controls.

Results.—Of the 25 patients evaluated, 15 suffered from migraine and 10 from tension-type headache (TTH). Statistical analysis of the mean values of S100β levels demonstrated a significant elevation in children with migraine headache, with values higher than those of both children with TTH and controls (P= .001).

Conclusions.—Our data suggest a direct relation between childhood migraine attacks and increased production of glial S100β protein. Serum S100β determination may be a useful biochemical marker for migraine in acute recurrent headache in childhood.