From the Department of Neurology (Drs. H. T. Atasoy, Unal, Emre, and Sumer) Department of Psychiatry (Dr. N. Atasoy), Zonguldak Karaelmas University Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Turkey.
Low Income and Education Levels May Cause Medication Overuse and Chronicity in Migraine Patients
Article first published online: 22 DEC 2004
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 45, Issue 1, pages 25–31, January 2005
How to Cite
Atasoy, H. T., Unal, A. E., Atasoy, N., Emre, U. and Sumer, M. (2005), Low Income and Education Levels May Cause Medication Overuse and Chronicity in Migraine Patients. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 45: 25–31. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05006.x
- Issue published online: 22 DEC 2004
- Article first published online: 22 DEC 2004
- Accepted for publication August 14, 2004.
- medication overuse headache;
Background.—Frequent analgesic drug intake, especially in migraine patients, may induce the risk of medication overuse headache (MOH). The various conditions that may affect the development and the features of MOH have not been determined yet.
Aim.—To compare MOH patients with migraine as pre-existing headache and episodic migraine patients according to socioeconomic and educational variables.
Methods.—Forty-six MOH patients with migraine as pre-existing headache and 61 migraine patients were included into study. The headache characteristics, socioeconomic and educational variables of MOH and migraine groups and subgroups divided according to the education (low/high education subgroups), and income (low/high income subgroups) levels were evaluated.
Results.—We found that mean duration of education was shorter in MOH patients than migraine patients. There was a negative correlation between duration of education and duration of MOH. The mean duration of MOH was longer and rate of low-income level was higher in patients with low-education level. The duration of education was lower in MOH patients with low income. The frequency of migraine attacks and low-income rate was also higher in low-educated migraine patients. The duration of education was shorter in migraine patients with low income.
Conclusion.—We report that migraineurs with low socioeconomic status may have risk of developing MOH. A better identification of patients at risk of drug-associated headache may contribute to improved health in a group of patients with MOH.