Methodological Considerations in Research With Special Populations: Children and Adolescents


  • Frank Andrasik PhD,

  • Scott W. Powers PhD, ABPP,

  • Patrick J. McGrath PhD

  • From the University of West Florida, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, FL (Dr. Andrasik); Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (Dr. Powers); Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada (Dr. McGrath).

Address all correspondence to Dr. Frank Andrasik, PhD, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32502.


Headache occurs across the lifespan, but limited attention has been devoted to children and adolescents. This article discusses pertinent methodological considerations when conducting behavioral research with pediatric populations. Issues needing special consideration when working with children and adolescents involve ethics, sample characterization, headache diagnosis, treatment administration, and outcome measurement. Available literature is reviewed and specific recommendations are offered when possible.