• aged;
  • CPAP;
  • case report;
  • diagnosis;
  • headache;
  • pneumocephalus

We report a case of atraumatic pneumocephalus associated with prolonged use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Initial symptoms included headache, ataxia, vertigo, and a “gurgling” sensation in the head; and a CT image showed small air bubbles along the falx of cerebrum and adjacent to the temporal epidural spaces bilaterally. Although no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak was either reported by the patient or found at initial clinical examination, subsequent nasal discharge tested positive for β2-transferrin, a finding consistent with CSF leak in the paranasal sinus region or through the cribriform plate. To try to prevent infection from an open communication between the paranasal sinuses and intracranial structures, an attempt should be made to localize the anatomic defect.