Get access

Translating Instruments for Cross-Cultural Studies in Headache Research


  • Michele Peters PhD,

  • Jan Passchier PhD

  • Department of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Address all correspondence to Dr. Michele Peters, Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Objective.—To describe translation methods, to outline current recommendations for translation and to give an overview of translation procedures used in headache.

Background.—In health-care research, particularly in the domain of health-related quality of life, an increasing number of questionnaires are translated for cross- cultural comparison. A number of headache-related questionnaires have also been translated. To ensure true cross-cultural comparison, it is important to use rigorous translation methods to ensure a high quality translated version of the instruments.

Methods.—Literature relevant to cross-cultural translations was reviewed, as well as literature concerning translation of headache-related instruments.

Conclusion.—More information on the translation process for headache-related instruments is essential to carry out high quality cross-cultural research. Recommendation are given to encourage good translation practices.