• migraine;
  • FHM;
  • CACNA1A;
  • ATP1A2;
  • SCN1A;
  • genetic biomarkers

Biomarkers are physical signs or laboratory measurements that occur in association with a pathological process and have putative diagnostic and/or prognostic utility. In migraine, clinical, radiological, and biochemical biomarkers might be helpful to improve diagnosis, get insight in pathophysiology, and facilitate treatment choices. Genetic biomarkers are defined as genetic variations (mutations or polymorphisms) that can predict disease susceptibility, disease outcome, or treatment response. As yet, only a few genetic biomarkers for migraine are available. Mutations in 3 different genes responsible for familial hemiplegic migraine, a monogenetic subtype of migraine with aura, and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in common forms of migraine are clear examples. Many positive findings from linkage studies and association studies in common forms of migraine have not been replicated, and are therefore of less clinical use. In this review, we will discuss genetic biomarkers in migraine.