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Keywords:

  • headache;
  • migraine;
  • adherence;
  • compliance;
  • behavioral;
  • regimen

Clinical recommendations were gleaned from a review of treatment adherence published in the regular issue of Headache (released in tandem with this supplement). The recommendations include: (1) Nonadherence is prevalent among headache patients, undermines treatment efficacy, and should be considered as a treatment variable; (2) Calling patients to remind them of appointments and recalling those who miss a scheduled appointment are fundamentally the most cost-effective adherence-enhancing strategies, insofar as failed appointment-keeping acts as a ceiling on all future treatment and adherence efforts; (3) Simplified and tailored medication regimens improve adherence (eg, minimized number of medications and dosings, fixed-dose combinations, cue-dose training, stimulus control); (4) Screening and management of psychiatric comorbidities, especially depression and anxiety, is encouraged; (5) The concept of self-efficacy as a modifiable psychological process often can be employed to predict and improve adherence.