Conflict of Interest: None.
Increased Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels in Migraineurs
Article first published online: 13 NOV 2007
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 48, Issue 1, pages 135–139, January 2008
How to Cite
Imamura, K., Takeshima, T., Fusayasu, E. and Nakashima, K. (2008), Increased Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels in Migraineurs. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 48: 135–139. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2007.00958.x
- Issue published online: 20 DEC 2007
- Article first published online: 13 NOV 2007
- Accepted for publication June 19, 2007.
- cortical spreading depression;
- neurogenic inflammation;
Background and Objective.— Cortical spreading depression and neurogenic inflammation have been hypothesized to be key steps in the development of migraine headache. Recent studies have highlighted matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in cortical spreading depression, neurogenic inflammation, and cerebral ischemia. To seek their possible association, we investigated plasma MMP-9 levels in migraineurs during headache-free periods.
Methods.— Plasma MMP-9 levels in 84 migraine subjects and 61 controls were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 23 patients with tension type headache were included in the study as comparative subjects.
Results.— The MMP-9 levels in migraineurs (42.5 ± 4.6 ng/mL, mean ± SE) were significantly higher than those in controls (25.4 ± 2.7 ng/mL, P < .005). Those levels in tension type headache subjects (24.6 ± 4.8 ng/mL) did not differ from those in controls. There was no significant difference between subjects having migraine with aura and those without aura. The MMP-9 levels did not correlate with age, duration of illness, frequency of migraine attack, duration of headache attack, or medication for headache. Mean plasma MMP-9 levels were the highest in subjects from whom blood samples were taken 2-4 days after their latest attack.
Conclusions.— The degradation of extracellular matrix showing the increase of MMP-9 in migrainurs may be associated with an abnormality in their blood vessel permeability. MPP-9 plays some role in migraine pathophysiology. Further studies of MMPs are necessary to elucidate their role.