Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) is a childhood disorder of uncertain etiology manifesting recurrent unilateral headache associated with a transitory oculomotor (usually IIIrd nerve) palsy. Recent publications emphasize the finding on MRI of contrast enhancement in the IIIrd nerve suggesting that OM may be a recurrent inflammatory neuropathy.
We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with typical symptoms of this disorder. Angio MR and Angio CT revealed the presence of an infundibular dilatation of a perforating branch of the posterior cerebral artery adjacent to the symptomatic IIIrd nerve. We speculate that this and perhaps other cases of OM may have a different pathophysiology related to compression of the IIIrd nerve by an adjacent vascular structure that could activate the trigeminovascular system and produce migrainous pain.