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The Prevalence of Headache and Its Association With Socioeconomic Status Among Schoolchildren in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors

  • Uğur Işık MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Ahmet Topuzoğlu MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Pınar Ay MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Refika Hamutçu Ersu MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Ayşe Rodopman Arman MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • M. Fatih Önsüz MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Melda Karavuş MD,

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Elif Dağlı MD

    1. From the Division of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine, Acıbadem University (U. Işık); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Marmara University (A. Topuzoğlu, P. Ay, M.F. Önsüz, and M. Karavuş); Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Marmara University (R.H. Ersu, and E. Dağlı); Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.R. Arman).
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  • Conflict of Interest: None

U. Işık, Acibadem Hospital, Inonu Cad. Okur Sok. No:20 Kozyatagi/Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract

Objective.— The etiology and pathogenesis of migraine and other types of headache are still under discussion. An interaction of organic, psychological, and psychosocial factors is operative. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of headache and its association with socioeconomic status among schoolchildren.

Study Design.— A cross-sectional study was performed on 2669 schoolchildren via a parental questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was determined according to the Turkish socioeconomic status scale.

Results.— The mean age of the students was 8.2 ± 2.4 years. The headache prevalence was 46.2% (95% CI: 44.3-48.1). The prevalence of migraine was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.8-4.1), the prevalence of probable migraine was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.6-9.8), and that of non-migraine headache was 34.1% (95% CI: 32.3-35.9). Multivariate analysis revealed that older age, being a girl, having a family history of headache, and exposure to passive smoking at home were independently associated with headache. There was an inverse association between socioeconomic status and all 3 types of headaches after adjusting for age, sex, family history of headache, and presence of passive smoking. When the group with the lowest socioeconomic status was taken as the reference category, the odds ratios for the highest socioeconomic group were 0.33 (95% CI: 0.16-0.69, P = .003) for the migraine, 0.30 (95% CI: 0.11-0.89, P = .029) for the probable migraine, and 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.72, P = 0.005) for the non-migraine headache.

Conclusion.— Headache is more common among children with lower socioeconomic groups. Social causation can play a role in the pathogenesis of headache.

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