Medication-Overuse Headache and Personality: A Controlled Study by Means of the MMPI-2

Authors

  • Grazia Sances MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Federica Galli PhD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Serena Anastasi MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Natascia Ghiotto MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Giuseppina De Giorgio MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Vincenzo Guidetti MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Caterina Firenze MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Stefania Pazzi MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Roberto Quartesan MD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Marcello Gallucci PhD,

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Giuseppe Nappi MD

    1. From the Headache Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (G. Sances, F. Galli, and S. Pazzi); Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi, G. De Giorgio, C. Firenze, and R. Quartesan); Neurovascular Unit, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto); University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Section of Pavia, University Italy, Pavia, Italy (N. Ghiotto and G. Nappi); Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS “C. Mondino Institute of Neurology” Foundation, Pavia, Italy (S. Pazzi); Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano-Bicocca, Italy (M. Gallucci); Department of Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy (G. Nappi).
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  • Conflict of Interest: None

F. Galli, Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Via dei Sabelli 108-00185, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

(Headache 2010;50:198-209)

Objective.— The main aim of this study involves comparing the personality profiles of patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH) and episodic headaches, in order to elucidate the role of personality characteristics, according to one of the most widely used and validated personality assessment tool: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).

Background.— Many studies have assessed the personality of headache patients by means of MMPI-2 only using clinical and content scales. In this study the supplementary scales were also used as they evaluate different aspects of personality, particularly broad personality characteristics, generalized emotional distress and behavioral dyscontrol.

Methods.— We recruited 219 subjects (151 women and 68 men) who were grouped in the following categories: MOH group (n = 82); episodic headache group (n = 82; 58 migraine aura; 6 migraine with aura; 6 frequent episodic tension-type headache; 12 migraine+infrequent episodic tension-type headache) and 1 group of 55 healthy controls. MMPI-2 was employed. Data were computed with one-way anova and post hoc analyses.

Results.— Medication-overuse headache and episodic headache patients (EH) showed a very similar pattern, differentiating each other only in the Hypochondriasis (Hs) (P = .007; MOH: mean 14.18 [SD 5.53]; EH: mean 11.93 [SD 5.88] and Health Concerns [HEA]) (P = .005; MOH: mean 14.06 [SD 5.38]; EH: mean 11.81 [SD 5.59]) scales. Surprisingly, no differences were found between the 3 groups in the scales measuring dependence-related behavior such as Addiction Potential Scale (Aps) and Addiction Admission Scale (Aas). MOH and episodic headache patients scored significantly higher in the so-called neurotic scales Hs (P < .0001; MOH: mean 14.18 [SD 5.53]; EH: mean 11.93 [SD 5.88]; Controls: mean 5.91 [SD 3.57]), Depression (D) (P < .0001; MOH: mean 26.44 [SD 7.01]; EH: mean 26.09 [SD 5.85]; Controls: mean 21.47 [SD 4.90]), and Hysteria (Hy) (P < .0001; MOH: mean 27.33 [SD 5.51]; EH: mean 26.81 [SD 5.68]; Controls: mean 21.95 [3.85]) and in many other scales such as Paranoia (Pa), Psychasthenia (Pt), Schizophrenia (Sc) while they scored significantly lower on Ego Strength (Es) and Dominance (Do) scales when compared with controls.

Conclusions.— Patients with MOH and episodic headache showed very similar patterns, differentiating only in the Hypochondriasis and Health Concerns scales. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in the scores of the scales measuring dependence-related behavior. The clinical role of MMPI-2 in discriminating MOH patients with dependency from drugs is discussed, in order to implement a complete tests' battery for headache patients' assessment.

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