Persistent Post-Traumatic Headache, Postconcussion Syndrome, and Whiplash Injuries: The Evidence for a Non-Traumatic Basis With an Historical Review


  • Conflict of Interest: None

R.W. Evans, 1200 Binz #1370, Houston, TX 77004, USA.


There has been intense controversy about postconcussion syndrome since Erichsen's publication in 1866 on railway brain and railway spine. The fascinating history of this debate will be reviewed and then the non-organic explanations for postconcussion syndrome, headaches after head injury, and chronic whiplash injuries and headaches will be explored including the following: psychogenic, psychosocial, sociocultural, base rate misattribution, chronic pain, compensation and litigation, and malingering.