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THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED Prevalence and Burden of Headache Disorders: A Comparative Regional Study in China

Authors

  • Ning Luo PhD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Yannan Fang PhD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Feng Tan MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Qian Zhang MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Daliang Zou MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Xiutang Cao PhD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Xuehua Xu MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Hua Bai MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Jiangang Ou MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Haike Wu MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Zilong Chen MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Yane Zhou MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Saiying Wan MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Yan Hong MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Jingliang Wang MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Minghui Ding MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Aiwu Zhang PhD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Daoyuan Zhu MD,

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Jun Dun PhD

    1. From the Departments of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (N. Luo and Y. Fang); Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Foshan, Guangdong, China (F. Tan, X. Xu, H. Wu, S. Wan, and J. Wang); The First People's Hospital Of Nanning, Nanning, Guangxi, China (Q. Zhang, H. Bai, Z. Chen, and Y. Hong); Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Chenxinghai Hospital, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China (D. Zou, J. Ou, and Y. Zhou); Department of Medical Statistics. Institute of Hospital Management, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (X. Cao); Department of Rehabilitation, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (M. Ding); Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (A. Zhang); Continuing Learning College of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China (D. Zhu); Public Health Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China (J. Dun).
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  • Conflict of interest: None

  • Ning Luo and Yannan Fang contributed equally.

Y. Fang, Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Abstract

Background.— Since the early 1990s, no study has been undertaken examining the prevalence and burden of headache disorders in China.

Objective.— We conducted a one-year survey on the prevalence and burden of primary headache in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Our study also evaluated the factors behind similarities and differences affecting prevalence in the 2 regions of study.

Methods.— Random samples of 372 local residents in Guangdong and 182 local residents in Guangxi aged 18-65 years were invited to a face-to-face interview.

Results.— The one-year prevalence of primary headache was 22.6% (84/372) in Guangdong and 41.2% (75/182) in Guangxi. The prevalence of migraine (14.3%, n = 26) in Guangxi was higher than prevalence of migraine (8.3%, n = 31) in Guangdong (P = .03). The ratio of headache cost and household income was 2.1% in Guangdong and 3.7% in Guangxi, the ratio in Guangdong was less than that in Guangxi (P = .001). The diagnostic confirmation rate of migraine was low. No migraineur used triptans drugs to treat migraine in either region.

Conclusion.— Migraine prevalence was higher in the lower-income region that also contains a higher proportion of ethnic minorities. Although there was no difference of headache cost between the 2 regions, the headache populations in the lower-income region would relatively suffer a greater financial burden if taking the economic differences between the 2 regions into account. The improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic levels for the treatment of headache, especially migraine, in the 2 regions may be a matter of urgency.

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