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Keywords:

  • epidemiology;
  • headache;
  • hormone;
  • migraine;
  • sex

(Headache 2011;51:843-859)

This manuscript discusses sex-related differences in headache prevalence, the symptoms and natural history of migraine, associated disability, and co-morbid disorders. The role of sex hormones is discussed with reference to the effects of hormonal events across the reproductive years and the specific effects of the menstrual cycle on migraine. Differences between the sexes were identified across all parameters reviewed. Future research should ensure that data are analyzed separately for men and women to ensure that differences between the sexes are identified.