Conflict of Interest: Anne MacGregor has acted as a paid consultant to, and/or her department has received research funding from, Addex, Allergan, AstraZeneca, BTG, Endo Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, Merck, Pozen, and Unipath. She received no financial support for the preparation of this manuscript. Dr. Jason Rosenberg has received within the last 2 years research funding from DioGenix, consulting fees from WellPoint and Resolution Health, and investigator-initiated research funding from GlaxoSmithKline. Dr. Kurth has received within the last 2 years investigator-initiated research funding from the French National Research Agency, the National Institutes of Health, Merck, the Migraine Research Foundation, and the Parkinson's Research Foundation. Furthermore, he is a consultant to i3 Drug Safety and World Health Information Science Consultants, LLC; he has received honoraria from Genzyme, Merck, and Pfizer for educational lectures; he has received travel funds from the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation.
Sex-Related Differences in Epidemiological and Clinic-Based Headache Studies
Article first published online: 1 JUN 2011
© 2011 American Headache Society
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 51, Issue 6, pages 843–859, June 2011
How to Cite
MacGregor, E. A., Rosenberg, J. D. and Kurth, T. (2011), Sex-Related Differences in Epidemiological and Clinic-Based Headache Studies. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 51: 843–859. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2011.01904.x
- Issue published online: 1 JUN 2011
- Article first published online: 1 JUN 2011
- Accepted for publication February 5, 2011.
This manuscript discusses sex-related differences in headache prevalence, the symptoms and natural history of migraine, associated disability, and co-morbid disorders. The role of sex hormones is discussed with reference to the effects of hormonal events across the reproductive years and the specific effects of the menstrual cycle on migraine. Differences between the sexes were identified across all parameters reviewed. Future research should ensure that data are analyzed separately for men and women to ensure that differences between the sexes are identified.