Differences in the Personality Profile of Medication-Overuse Headache Sufferers and Drug Addict Patients: A Comparative Study Using MMPI-2

Authors

  • Federica Galli PhD,

    Corresponding author
      Federica Galli, Headache Science Center, “National Neurological Institute C. Mondino” Foundation, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy, email: federica.galli@mondino.it
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  • Gino Pozzi MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Alessandra Frustaci MD, PhD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Marta Allena MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Serena Anastasi MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Antonio Chirumbolo PhD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Natascia Ghiotto MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Vincenzo Guidetti MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Adriana Matarrese PhD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Giuseppe Nappi MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Stefania Pazzi,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Roberto Quartesan MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Grazia Sances MD,

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Cristina Tassorelli MD

    1. From the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (F. Galli and V. Guidetti); Headache Science Centre, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino Foundation and Consortium for Adaptive Disorders and Head-pain (UCADH), University of Pavia, Italy (F. Galli, M. Allena, N. Ghiotto, G. Nappi, S. Pazzi, G. Sances, and C. Tassorelli); Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy (G. Pozzi); Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology – IRCCS “San Raffaele Pisana,” Rome, Italy (A. Frustaci); Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (S. Anastasi and R. Quartesan); Faculty of Psychology 1, Department of Social & Developmental Psychology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy (A. Chirumbolo); SerT Sud-Est, ASL 10, Florence, Italy (A. Matarrese).
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  • Conflict of Interest: None

  • Funding Source: None

Federica Galli, Headache Science Center, “National Neurological Institute C. Mondino” Foundation, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy, email: federica.galli@mondino.it

Abstract

(Headache 2011;51:1212-1227)

Background.— Medication-overuse headache (MOH) refers to headache attributed to excessive use of acute medications. The role of personality needs studies to explain the shifting from drug use to drug abuse. The main aim of this study is to study personality, according to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, comparing MOH, episodic headache, substance addicts (SA) vs healthy controls.

Methods.— Eighty-two MOH patients (mean age 44.5; 20 M, 62 F) and 35 episodic headache (mean age 40.2; 8 M, 27 F), were compared to 37 SA (mean age 32.5; 29 M, 8 F) and 37 healthy controls (mean age: 32.49; 20 M, 17 F). International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition criteria were employed. Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and post hoc comparisons were used for statistics.

Results.— MOH patients scored higher on Hypochondriasis, Depression (only females), Hysteria (only females) (P < .000). MOH did not show higher scores than episodic headache or healthy controls in dependency scales, while SA did.

Conclusion.— The data obtained show that MOH and SA do not share common personality characteristics linked to dependence. Although further studies are needed to understand if such a difference is related to instrumental characteristics or to yet undiscovered psychobiological characteristics of MOH patients; however, we hypothesize that the detected difference may rely on the fact that drug dependence in the 2 groups is promoted by entirely different needs: pleasure seeking in the SA group, pain avoidance in the MOH group.

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