Interictal Pattern-Induced Visual Discomfort and Ictal Photophobia in Episodic Migraineurs: An Association of Interictal and Ictal Photophobia
Article first published online: 2 NOV 2011
© 2011 American Headache Society
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
Volume 51, Issue 10, pages 1461–1467, November/December 2011
How to Cite
Chu, M. K., Im, H.-J., Chung, C.-S. and Oh, K. (2011), Interictal Pattern-Induced Visual Discomfort and Ictal Photophobia in Episodic Migraineurs: An Association of Interictal and Ictal Photophobia. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 51: 1461–1467. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2011.02010.x
Sponsorship: This study did not receive financial supports, provision of materials, or a discount from current rates.
Conflict of Interest: None
- Issue published online: 14 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 2 NOV 2011
- Accepted for publication July 11, 2011.
- visual discomfort;
- visual cortex
Background.— Pattern-induced visual discomfort and photophobia are frequently observed symptoms in migraineurs. The presumed pathophysiologic mechanisms of pattern glare and photophobia seem to overlap anatomically within the central nervous system.
Objective.— To assess the relationship between interictal pattern-induced visual discomfort and ictal photophobia in episodic migraineurs.
Methods.— We compared pattern-induced visual discomfort among 3 groups: controls, migraineurs without ictal photophobia (MwoP), and migraineurs with ictal photophobia (MwP). Photophobia was assessed with a validated photophobia questionnaire. Visual discomfort tests were performed using 3 striped patterns with different spatial frequencies. After viewing the patterns for 10 seconds, subjects were asked to report the severity of visual discomfort using 4 scales (none, mild, moderate, and severe) and using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS). We compared the proportion of subjects choosing moderate-to-severe discomfort and the median values of VAS scores for each pattern among the 3 groups.
Results.— We enrolled 35 controls, 18 MwoP, and 44 MwP, and there were no significant differences in clinical features among the 3 groups. MwP reported a significantly higher proportion of moderate-to-severe discomfort and higher median VAS scores than the controls and MwoP did. The intensity of discomfort increased with higher frequency of visual stimuli.
Conclusions.— We conclude that MwP experienced more severe pattern-induced visual discomfort as compared with the controls and MwoP.