• 1
    Rhodes DJ, Koshy RC, Waterfield WC, Wu AW, Grossman SA. Feasibility of quantitative pain assessment in outpatient oncology practice. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:5018.
  • 2
    Weiss SC, Emanuel LL, Fairclough DL, Emanuel EJ. Understanding the experience of pain in the terminally ill patients. Lancet 2001;357:13115.
  • 3
    Drayer RA, Henderson J, Reidenberg M. Barriers to better pain control in hospitalized patients. J Pain Symp Manage 1999;17:43440.
  • 4
    Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K, et al. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. JAMA 1998;279:187792.
  • 5
    Apfelbaum JL, Chen C, Mehta SS, Gan TJ. Postoperative pain experience: Results from a national survey suggest postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged. Anesth Analg 2003;97:53440.
  • 6
    Brockopp DY, Brockopp G, Warden S, et al. Barriers to change: A pain management project. Int J Nurs Stud 1998;35:22632.
  • 7
    Bosch F, Baños JE. Religious beliefs of patients and caregivers as a barrier to the pharmacologic control of cancer pain. Clin Pharm Ther 2002;72:10711.
  • 8
    Cleeland CS. Undertreatment of cancer pain in elderly patients. JAMA 1998;279:19145.
  • 9
    Pantel ES. Breaking down the barriers to effective pain management. Report to the Commissioner of Health, Barbara A. De Buono, MD, MPH, from the New York State Public Health Council. January, 1998, Appendix E.
  • 10
    Richard J, Reidenberg MM. The risk of disciplinary action by state medical boards against physicians prescribing opioids. J Pain Symp Manage 2005;29:20612.
  • 11
    Federal Register, Vol. 6, No. 190/October 1, 2004, p. 58959.
  • 12
    The Myth of the “Chilling Effect.” Available at: (accessed October 14, 2005).
  • 13
    Federal Register, Vol. 69, No. 220/Tuesday, November 16, 2004/Notices, p. 67170, Docket DEA 258-S.
  • 14
    Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 1306.04.
  • 15
    Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 1306.05.
  • 16
    Reznick RK, Blackmore D, Cohen R, et al. Use of standardized-patient examinations in conjunction with licensure, and certification. An objective structured clinical examination for the licentiate of The Medical Council of Canada, from research to reality. Acad Med 1993;68(suppl 10):535.
  • 17
    Clauser BE, Ripkey D, Fletcher B, et al. Use of standardized-patient examinations in conjunction with licensure, and certification. A comparison of pass/fail classifications made scores from the NBME standardized-patient examination and Part II Examination. Acad Med 1993;68(suppl 10):579.
  • 18
    Letter from 30 state attorneys general to Karen P. Tandy, Administrator, DEA, January 19, 2005. Available at: (accessed October 14, 2005).
  • 19
    Stratton Hill C. Government regulatory influences on opioid prescribing and their impact on the treatment of pain of nonmalignant origin. J Pain Symp Manage 1996;11:28798.
  • 20
    Jung B, Reidenberg MM. Interpretation of opioid levels: Comparison of levels during chronic pain therapy to levels from forensic autopsies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005;77:32434.
  • 21
    Ziegler SJ, Lovrich NP Jr. Pain relief, prescription drugs, and prosecution: A four-state survey of chief prosecutors. J Law Med Ethics 2003;31:75100.