This manuscript contains original material that has not been previously published. None of the authors have a conflict of interest. The sponsors had no role in the design, methods, subject recruitment, data collection, analysis, or manuscript preparation.
The Self-Administered 24-Item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-24-SA): Psychometric Properties in Three European Populations of Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Article first published online: 20 AUG 2008
© American Academy of Pain Medicine
Volume 9, Issue 6, pages 695–709, September 2008
How to Cite
Clough-Gorr, K. M., Blozik, E., Gillmann, G., Beck, J. C., Ferrell, B. A., Anders, J., Harari, D. and Stuck, A. E. (2008), The Self-Administered 24-Item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-24-SA): Psychometric Properties in Three European Populations of Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Pain Medicine, 9: 695–709. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00497.x
Original Research Article
- Issue published online: 20 AUG 2008
- Article first published online: 20 AUG 2008
- Pain Assessment;
- Older Adults;
Objective. To explore the feasibility and psychometric properties of a self-administered version of the 24-item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-24-SA).
Design. Secondary analysis of baseline data from the Prevention in Older People—Assessment in Generalists' practices trial, an international multi-center study of a health-risk appraisal system.
Participants. One thousand seventy-two community dwelling nondisabled older adults self-reporting pain from London, UK; Hamburg, Germany; and Solothurn, Switzerland.
Outcome Measures. GPM-24-SA as part of a multidimensional Health Risk Appraisal Questionnaire including self-reported demographic and health-related information.
Results. Among the 1,072 subjects, 655 had complete GPM-24-SA data, 404 had ≤30% missing GPM-24-SA data, and 13 had >30% missing GPM-24-SA data. In psychometric analyses across the three European populations with complete GPM-24-SA data, the measure exhibited stable internal consistency, good convergent, divergent and discriminant validity, and produced stable pain measurements. However, factor analysis indicated differences in the GPM-24-SA across sites with discrepancies mainly related to items of a single subscale that failed to load appropriately. Analyses including imputation for subjects with ≤30% missing data demonstrated psychometric properties comparable to complete data analyses suggesting that imputation in cases with ≤30% missing GPM-24-SA data provides sufficient information to generate a valid score.
Conclusion. The GPM-24-SA is a promising tool for self-administered assessment of pain in community dwelling older adults. However, because of incomplete response and uncertainty in factor structure, further refinement and psychometric evaluation of the GPM-24-SA is needed before it could be recommended for widespread use.