The Self-Administered 24-Item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-24-SA): Psychometric Properties in Three European Populations of Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Authors

  • Kerri M. Clough-Gorr DSc, MPH,

    1. Department of Geriatrics, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital and Spital Netz Bern Ziegler and University of Bern, Bern Switzerland;
    2. Geriatric Assessment Unit, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland;
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  • Eva Blozik MD, MPH,

    1. Department of Geriatrics, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital and Spital Netz Bern Ziegler and University of Bern, Bern Switzerland;
    2. Geriatric Assessment Unit, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland;
    3. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg, Bern, Switzerland;
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  • Gerhard Gillmann MSc,

    1. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg, Bern, Switzerland;
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  • John C. Beck MD,

    1. School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California;
    2. Langley Research Institute, Pacific Palisades, California;
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  • Bruce A. Ferrell MD,

    1. Department of Medicine and Division of Geriatrics, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA;
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  • Jennifer Anders MD,

    1. Albertinen-Haus Geriatrics Centre, University of Hamburg, Sellhopsweg, Hamburg, Germany;
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  • Danielle Harari FRCP,

    1. Department of Ageing and Health, Guys and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, UK
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  • Andreas E. Stuck MD

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Geriatrics, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital and Spital Netz Bern Ziegler and University of Bern, Bern Switzerland;
    2. Geriatric Assessment Unit, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland;
      Andreas E. Stuck, MD, University Department of Geriatrics, Spital Netz Bern Ziegler, Morillonstrasse 75-91, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland. Tel: +41-31-970-73-36; Fax: +41-31-970-76-47; E-mail: andreas.stuck@spitalnetzbern.ch.
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  • This manuscript contains original material that has not been previously published. None of the authors have a conflict of interest. The sponsors had no role in the design, methods, subject recruitment, data collection, analysis, or manuscript preparation.

  • Original Research Article

Andreas E. Stuck, MD, University Department of Geriatrics, Spital Netz Bern Ziegler, Morillonstrasse 75-91, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland. Tel: +41-31-970-73-36; Fax: +41-31-970-76-47; E-mail: andreas.stuck@spitalnetzbern.ch.

ABSTRACT

Objective.  To explore the feasibility and psychometric properties of a self-administered version of the 24-item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-24-SA).

Design.  Secondary analysis of baseline data from the Prevention in Older People—Assessment in Generalists' practices trial, an international multi-center study of a health-risk appraisal system.

Participants.  One thousand seventy-two community dwelling nondisabled older adults self-reporting pain from London, UK; Hamburg, Germany; and Solothurn, Switzerland.

Outcome Measures.  GPM-24-SA as part of a multidimensional Health Risk Appraisal Questionnaire including self-reported demographic and health-related information.

Results.  Among the 1,072 subjects, 655 had complete GPM-24-SA data, 404 had ≤30% missing GPM-24-SA data, and 13 had >30% missing GPM-24-SA data. In psychometric analyses across the three European populations with complete GPM-24-SA data, the measure exhibited stable internal consistency, good convergent, divergent and discriminant validity, and produced stable pain measurements. However, factor analysis indicated differences in the GPM-24-SA across sites with discrepancies mainly related to items of a single subscale that failed to load appropriately. Analyses including imputation for subjects with ≤30% missing data demonstrated psychometric properties comparable to complete data analyses suggesting that imputation in cases with ≤30% missing GPM-24-SA data provides sufficient information to generate a valid score.

Conclusion.  The GPM-24-SA is a promising tool for self-administered assessment of pain in community dwelling older adults. However, because of incomplete response and uncertainty in factor structure, further refinement and psychometric evaluation of the GPM-24-SA is needed before it could be recommended for widespread use.

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