• Pain;
  • Pain Assessment;
  • Older Adults;
  • Psychometrics;
  • Validity;
  • Reliability


Objective.  To explore the feasibility and psychometric properties of a self-administered version of the 24-item Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-24-SA).

Design.  Secondary analysis of baseline data from the Prevention in Older People—Assessment in Generalists' practices trial, an international multi-center study of a health-risk appraisal system.

Participants.  One thousand seventy-two community dwelling nondisabled older adults self-reporting pain from London, UK; Hamburg, Germany; and Solothurn, Switzerland.

Outcome Measures.  GPM-24-SA as part of a multidimensional Health Risk Appraisal Questionnaire including self-reported demographic and health-related information.

Results.  Among the 1,072 subjects, 655 had complete GPM-24-SA data, 404 had ≤30% missing GPM-24-SA data, and 13 had >30% missing GPM-24-SA data. In psychometric analyses across the three European populations with complete GPM-24-SA data, the measure exhibited stable internal consistency, good convergent, divergent and discriminant validity, and produced stable pain measurements. However, factor analysis indicated differences in the GPM-24-SA across sites with discrepancies mainly related to items of a single subscale that failed to load appropriately. Analyses including imputation for subjects with ≤30% missing data demonstrated psychometric properties comparable to complete data analyses suggesting that imputation in cases with ≤30% missing GPM-24-SA data provides sufficient information to generate a valid score.

Conclusion.  The GPM-24-SA is a promising tool for self-administered assessment of pain in community dwelling older adults. However, because of incomplete response and uncertainty in factor structure, further refinement and psychometric evaluation of the GPM-24-SA is needed before it could be recommended for widespread use.