Neurotherapy of Fibromyalgia?
Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010
Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 11, Issue 6, pages 912–919, June 2010
How to Cite
Nelson, D. V., Bennett, R. M., Barkhuizen, A., Sexton, G. J., Jones, K. D., Esty, M. L., Ochs, L. and Donaldson, C. C. S. (2010), Neurotherapy of Fibromyalgia?. Pain Medicine, 11: 912–919. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00862.x
Supported by NIH/NCCAM Grant 1R21 AT000930-01A2 and the Oregon Health and Science University General Clinical Research Center through PHS Grant 5 M01 RR000334.
- Issue published online: 2 JUN 2010
- Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010
- Complementary Therapies;
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of a novel variant of electroencephalograph biofeedback, the Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS), that utilizes minute pulses of electromagnetic stimulation to change brainwave activity for the amelioration of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms.
Design. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Setting. Tertiary referral academic medical center, outpatient.
Patients. Thirty-four patients diagnosed with FM according to 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria.
Interventions. Active or sham LENS, depending on randomization, for 22 treatment sessions.
Outcome Measures. Primary outcome measure was the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score. Secondary outcome measures included number of tender points (TPs) and pressure required to elicit TPs on physical examination, quantitative sensory testing heat pain threshold, and self-reported cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, sleep problems, global psychological distress, and depression obtained at baseline, immediate post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-up.
Results. Participants who received the active or sham interventions improved (Ps < 0.05) on the primary and a variety of secondary outcome measures, without statistically significant between group differences in evidence at post-treatment or 3- or 6-month follow-up. Individual session self-reported ratings of specific symptoms (cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, and sleep, and overall activity level) over the course of the 22 intervention sessions indicated significant linear trends for improvement for the active intervention condition only (Ps < 0.05).
Conclusion. LENS cannot be recommended as a single modality treatment for FM. However, further study is warranted to investigate the potential of LENS to interact synergistically with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies for improving symptoms in FM.